Reproductive Physiology Quiz! Hardest Trivia Questions

25 Questions | Total Attempts: 104

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Reproductive Physiology Quiz! Hardest Trivia Questions

This reproductive physiology quiz has some of the hardest trivia questions you will come across as a reproductive medical practitioner. It offers you scenarios that you might face when it comes to patients, and you are expected to choose the right actions for each. Give it a try and see what you need to polish upon. All the best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    A 29-year-old woman visits the gynecologist complaining of irregular cycles for the past 12 months. The patient further explains that her cycles range from 39 to 65 days and that her menstrual period lasts for 2-3 days with very heavy menstrual blood flow. Physical and pelvic exams are unremarkable. Urinalysis is negative for chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Which of the following are the best description and most likely cause of this patient's irregular menstrual cycles?
    • A. 

      Oligomenorrhea caused by hyperplasia of the endometrium

    • B. 

      Polymenorrhea caused by a follicular cyst

    • C. 

      Dysmenorrhea caused by a uterine fibroid

    • D. 

      Secondary amenorrhea caused by a luteal cyst

    • E. 

      Dysfunctional uterine bleeding caused by polycystic ovary syndrome

  • 2. 
    A 34-year-old woman visits the gynecologist complaining of infertility. She has been trying to conceive for 20 months. She describes her menstrual cycles as irregular. On physical exam galactorrhea is noted; pelvic and ultrasound exams are otherwise unremarkable. Which hormone is most likely elevated in this woman and the cause of her infertility?
    • A. 

      Thyroxine

    • B. 

      Estradiol

    • C. 

      Thyroid Releasing Hormone

    • D. 

      Follicle Stimulating Hormone

    • E. 

      Luteinizing Hormone

    • F. 

      Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone

    • G. 

      Prolactin

  • 3. 
    A 37-year-old woman visits the gynecologist complaining of heavy menstrual bleeding. The woman is referred to as a Women's Health Research Center. Her menstrual blood loss for three consecutive 29-day menstrual cycles is measured as 122 mL, 118 mL, and 93 mL, respectively. The patient indicated menstrual blood flow for approximately 4 days each menstrual period, and she has no complaints of pain. Plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone are in the normal range for the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Urinalysis is negative for chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); the pelvic exam is unremarkable.
    • A. 

      Dysmenorrhea

    • B. 

      Oligomenorrhea

    • C. 

      Amenorrhea

    • D. 

      Menorrhagia

    • E. 

      Polymenorrhea

  • 4. 
    Placental growth hormone (HGH-V) replaces pituitary GH (hGH) in the maternal circulation by the third trimester of gestation. What is the primary cause of the marked reduction in hGH?
    • A. 

      Human placental lactogen inhibits the release of hypothalamic growth hormone releasing factor

    • B. 

      Increased levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) inhibit the secretion of pituitary GH

    • C. 

      Human chorionic gonadotropin inhibits the secretion of pituitary GH

    • D. 

      Progesterone inhibits the release of hypothalamic growth hormone releasing factor

    • E. 

      Placental GH inhibits the release of hypothalamic growth hormone releasing factor

    • F. 

      Increased levels of prolactin (PRL) inhibit the secretion of pituitary GH

  • 5. 
    A 29-year-old woman participates in a clinical trial to test a novel non-steroidal contraceptive therapy. A large number of enrolled subjects become pregnant within the first 6 months and the clinical trial is canceled. Subsequent laboratory analyses suggest that the clinical trial failed because the compound crossed the blood-brain barrier. This compound was designed to block which of the following physiological processes associated with fertilization and/or early pregnancy?
    • A. 

      Sperm transport

    • B. 

      Ovulation

    • C. 

      Ovum transport

    • D. 

      Blastocyst adhesion

    • E. 

      Blastocyst invasion

  • 6. 
    A 30-year-old primigravid woman in the 31st week of pregnancy complains of severe swelling in her calves and ankles. Physical exam reveals moderate edema of the lower extremities, a common complaint during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Blood pressure is 142/91; urine dipstick is positive (2+) for protein. Which of the following renal parameters is most likely reduced in this patient?   
    • A. 

      Capillary flow

    • B. 

      Endothelin 1

    • C. 

      Glomerular Filtration Rate

    • D. 

      Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)

  • 7. 
    A 30-year-old woman complains of recurrent pregnancy loss. The patient further explains that she does not use birth control, and has become pregnant 4 times in the past 15 months, resulting in spontaneous abortion each time before the 10th week of gestation. Which of the following is the most likely cause for her recurrent miscarriages?
    • A. 

      Low levels of estradiol (E2) during the proliferative phase

    • B. 

      Low levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) during the proliferative phase

    • C. 

      Low levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) during the proliferative phase

    • D. 

      Low levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) during the secretory phase

    • E. 

      Low levels of estradiol (E2) during the secretory phase

    • F. 

      Low levels of progesterone during the secretory phase

  • 8. 
    A 28-year-old primigravida woman in the 25th week of gestation visits her gynecologist. A blood sample is collected and the patient is administered an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The results of the one hour OGTT reveal a glucose level of 194 mg/dL (normal is <180 mg/dL). What is the risk for this pregnant mother developing Type II diabetes mellitus in the future?
    • A. 

      5-10%

    • B. 

      10-20%

    • C. 

      20-35%

    • D. 

      35-60%

    • E. 

      60-90%

  • 9. 
    A 25-year-old woman visits the gynecologist complaining of irregular menstrual cycles. Her cycles over the past year have been occurring every 7-10 weeks. Menstrual bleeding lasts for 3-5 days and there is no associated pain. Plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone are in the normal range for the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Urinalysis is negative for chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); the pelvic exam is unremarkable. Which one of the following descriptions best defines this woman's menstrual periods?
    • A. 

      Dysmenorrhea

    • B. 

      Oligomenorrhea

    • C. 

      Amenorrhea

    • D. 

      Polymenorrhea

    • E. 

      Menorrhagia

  • 10. 
    A 33-year-old man presents to a clinic complaining of infertility. He previously fathered a child with another woman but explains that he and his wife have been having unprotected intercourse for the past 14 months and have been unable to get pregnant. Multiple semen analyses taken two weeks apart reveal oligospermia (sperm count 100,000 sperm/mL) with normal motility. Testosterone levels are in the normal range. Which hormone is most likely reduced in this man?
    • A. 

      Luteinizing Hormone

    • B. 

      Prolactin

    • C. 

      Follicle Stimulating Hormone

    • D. 

      Estradiol

    • E. 

      Gonadotropin releasing hormone

    • F. 

      Dihydrotestosterone

  • 11. 
    A 38-year-old primigravid woman complains of irregular menstrual cycles. Urinalysis is negative for chorionic gonadotropin. Physical exam reveals galactorrhea; otherwise unremarkable. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this patient's irregular menstrual cycles?
    • A. 

      Elevated growth hormone

    • B. 

      Elevated oxytocin

    • C. 

      Elevated prolactin

    • D. 

      Elevated progesterone

    • E. 

      Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone

  • 12. 
    A 35-year-old woman, para 3, gravida 2, is diagnosed with mild hyperglycemia after the oral glucose challenge and subsequently delivers (at term) a large for gestational age baby boy. Which of the following hormones was most likely elevated in this woman and caused fetal overgrowth?
    • A. 

      Chorionic gonadotropin

    • B. 

      Insulin growth factor 1

    • C. 

      Insulin growth factor 2

    • D. 

      Pituitary growth hormone

    • E. 

      Prolactin

  • 13. 
    A 56-year-old man complains of urinary incontinence. Digital rectal exam (DRE) reveals an abnormally-shaped and enlarged prostate gland pushing on the man's bladder. Which of the following biomarkers is most likely elevated in this patient?
    • A. 

      Testosterone

    • B. 

      Dihydrotestosterone

    • C. 

      Luteinizing hormone

    • D. 

      Aromatase

    • E. 

      Prostate specific antigen

  • 14. 
    A 29-year-old woman visits a local psychologist for sexually-related problems. The patient is engaged to a "wonderful partner", and has recently been hired for her "dream job". The patient finally confesses that she is sexually frustrated - she has not had an orgasm during intercourse for the past 3 months. Which of the following may explain this patient's anorgasmia?
    • A. 

      Anorgasm is common in women

    • B. 

      This patient may have an underlying pathophysiological or pathological condition

    • C. 

      The mechanisms regulating orgasm are poorly understood

    • D. 

      Approximately 35 to 50% of women experience some level of sexual dysfunction.

    • E. 

      This patient is secretly longing for a colleague at her new job and no longer finds her partner sexually attractive.

    • F. 

      All of The Above

  • 15. 
    Which of the following best describes nutrient transport across the placental syncytiotrophoblasts?
    • A. 

      Transport across the placenta is always a tightly coordinated receptor-mediated process

    • B. 

      Transport mechanisms favor nutrient delivery from mother to fetus

    • C. 

      Transport of nutrients is predominantly determined by nutrient levels in the maternal circulation.

    • D. 

      Each class of nutrients (e.g. fat-soluble vitamins, amino acids, etc.) have well-defined transport mechanisms

    • E. 

      Transport mechanisms regulate nutrient transport on the maternal and fetal sides of the placenta.

  • 16. 
    A 72-year-old man visits the urologist complaining of the recent onset of urinary incontinence. Further history reveals a history of erectile dysfunction for at least the past year. Rectal exam reveals a normally-shaped but enlarged prostate gland. Blood work reveals normal levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA); normal white blood cell count; elevated levels of total cholesterol; elevated LDL, elevated triglycerides; decreased HDL. Review of the patient's records from his primary care physician indicates past history of hypercholesteremia, which has worsened. The patient is diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia and hyperlipidemia. What is the most likely cause of this man's erectile dysfunction?
    • A. 

      The enlarged prostate gland is compressing the pudendal nerve.

    • B. 

      The man's age - men over 65-years-old exhibit increased rates of erectile dysfunction

    • C. 

      The enlarged prostate gland is compressing the blood vessels supplying the corpus cavernosum.

    • D. 

      The hyperlipidemia has caused artherosclerotic plaques which are blocking the arteries supplying the penis.

    • E. 

      The patient has hyperglycemia which is the cause of the erectile dysfunction.

  • 17. 
    Which of the following statements best describes the role of estrogen during pregnancy?
    • A. 

      Stimulates breast growth

    • B. 

      Causes hypertrophy of the pituitary gland

    • C. 

      Stimulates vasodilation and increases uterine artery blood flow

    • D. 

      Enhances placental uptake of LDL cholesterol

    • E. 

      All choices are correct

  • 18. 
    A 45-year-old African-American woman, para 3, gravida 1, is 29 weeks pregnant and visits the gynecologist. The patient is administered the glucose challenge test (GCT), which reveals elevated glucose. The patient is then administered the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) which reveals normal glucose levels. Which of the following statements best describe this situation?
    • A. 

      The patient has mild hyperglycemia, which occurs in approximately 60% of the population.

    • B. 

      According to the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) this woman has gestational diabetes

    • C. 

      The patient does not have gestational diabetes, and therefore the infant is not at increased risk for macrosomia

    • D. 

      The patient has mild hyperglycemia and is at increased risk for developing type II diabetes in the future.

    • E. 

      Human placental lactogen is increased in this patient and the cause of the hyperglycemia.

  • 19. 
    A 28-year-old woman, para 2, gravida 1, at 39 weeks of pregnancy goes to the gynecologist for her weekly check-up. Pelvic exam reveals a slight dilatation of the cervix, which measures 1.5 cm. Elevations in which of the following is the most likely cause of this patient's cervical dilatation?
    • A. 

      Estrogen receptors

    • B. 

      Corticotropin releasing hormone

    • C. 

      Oxytocin receptors

    • D. 

      Prostaglandin E

    • E. 

      Prostaglandin F

  • 20. 
    A newborn infant, delivered prematurely at 35 weeks of gestation, is tachypneic and cyanotic. A slight heart murmur is detected. Which of the following vascular defects is the most likely cause of the infant's problems? (check all that apply)
    • A. 

      Patent ductus arteriosus

    • B. 

      Patent foramen ovale

    • C. 

      Patent ductus venosus

    • D. 

      Patent left-to-right shunt

    • E. 

      Patent right-to-left shunt

  • 21. 
    Which of the following choices best describe the changes in the concentration of chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) during pregnancy?
    • A. 

      HCG peak is at ~10 weeks of gestation

    • B. 

      HCG peak is at ~20 weeks of gestation

    • C. 

      HCG peak is at ~30weeks of gestation

    • D. 

      HCG nadir is at ~10 weeks of gestation

    • E. 

      HCG nadir is at ~20 weeks of gestation

    • F. 

      HCG nadir is at ~30 weeks of gestation

  • 22. 
    A 36-year-old woman at 23 weeks of pregnancy sees the gynecologist for a well-care visit. A serum sample is collected, which reveals normal levels of beta-hCG and elevated levels of hyperglycosylated hCG (hCG-H). What is the primary concern for this patient and her unborn baby?
    • A. 

      The mother is likely to develop gestational hypertension

    • B. 

      The mother is at increased risk of developing mild hyperglycemia

    • C. 

      There is an increased incidence of giving birth to a large for gestational age (LGA) baby

    • D. 

      There is an increased risk that the baby has Down Syndrome

    • E. 

      There is an increased risk for placental abruption (i.e. placenta abruptio)

  • 23. 
    A newborn infant, delivered prematurely at 35 weeks of gestation, is tachypneic and cyanotic. A slight heart murmur is detected. Which of the following hormones is most likely elevated in this neonate?
    • A. 

      Endothelin-1

    • B. 

      Prostaglandin F

    • C. 

      Oxytocin

    • D. 

      Angiotensin

    • E. 

      Prostaglandin E

  • 24. 
    A 47-year-old man suffers an acute myocardial infarction while SCUBA diving, and dies during transport to the hospital. The man had a familial history of coronary heart disease. Autopsy indicates the cause of death was a severely blocked right coronary artery; autopsy report also notes a 4.8 mm opening between the left and right atria in the heart. What percentage of the population has this common heart defect that forms during fetal-neonatal development?
    • A. 

      2%

    • B. 

      5%

    • C. 

      10%

    • D. 

      25%

    • E. 

      50%

  • 25. 
    A small for gestational age (SGA) infant is delivered preterm at 34 weeks. The infant's core temperature drops, and the baby is immediately warmed in the neonatal intensive care incubator. Which of the following are likely reduced in this infant and a potential cause of the reduced core temperature? (check all that apply)
    • A. 

      Thermogenin

    • B. 

      Thyroxine

    • C. 

      White adipose tissue

    • D. 

      Brown adipose tissue

    • E. 

      ATP synthase