PCR followed by electrophoresis
Fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH)
Assessment of loss of heterozygosity for short tandem repeat polymorphisms
Illegitimate crossing-over in maternal or paternal meiosis 1
Non-disjunction in maternal meiosis 1
Non-disjunction in maternal meiosis 2
Chromosome breakage near the centromere
Formation of a triploid gamete
Low circulating levels of insulin in the infant during gestation.
High plasma glucose of the infant during gestation.
Low plasma glucose of the infant throughout development
Elevated plasma levels of growth hormone of the infant throughout development
Elevated glucagon levels of the infant at the time of birth.
Longer gestational period
Internal carotid artery
Tumors that are positive for hormone receptors are more effectively treated with drugs like tamoxifen
Since most breast cancers are hormone receptor -negative testing for receptors identifies the few cancers that can be treated
Only mucinous (“colloid”) carcinomas are positive and this allows for identification of a subtype of carcinomas with a good prognosis
The identification of tumor receptor status has no impact on treatment but may be useful epidemiological information for the future
It identifies a group of tumors with a bad prognosis
Lobular carcinoma, invasive or in situ
Ductal carcinoma, invasive or in situ
Cystic dilatation of ducts
Atypical ductal hyperplasia