Breast Tumor And Chromosome Abnormalities! Trivia Quiz

14 Questions | Total Attempts: 310

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Breast Tumor And Chromosome Abnormalities! Trivia Quiz

"CTL: Chromosome abnormalities; fetal events, neonatal physiology" "CTL: Breast malignant and benign tumors"


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    A 35 year old man presents to the plastic surgeon for treatment of his gynecomastia.  Physical examination reveals a very tall man with small testicles. The surgeon removes breast tissue bilaterally and submits to the surgical pathology department.  Microscopic examination reveals invasive growth of large cells with hyperchromatic nuclei.  Which of the following is the most likely risk factor for his diagnosis?
    • A. 

      Decreased estrogen

    • B. 

      Increased testosterone

    • C. 

      XYY Karyotype

    • D. 

      XXY Karyotype

  • 2. 
    A spectral karyotype is a specialized form of FISH where the probe is painting all chromosome regions corresponding to a given standard chromosome in the same color. This method is better than standard banded karyotype in detection of which kind of abnormality?
    • A. 

      Deletion

    • B. 

      Robertsonian translocation

    • C. 

      Ring chromosome

    • D. 

      Inversion

    • E. 

      Reciprocal translocation

  • 3. 
    The diagnosis of autosomal trisomies from amniotic cells or chorionic villus biopsy is possible even with non-dividing cells. The method that is most commonly used for this purpose is
    • A. 

      PCR followed by electrophoresis

    • B. 

      Southern blotting

    • C. 

      Northern blotting

    • D. 

      Fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH)

    • E. 

      Assessment of loss of heterozygosity for short tandem repeat polymorphisms

  • 4. 
    Which of the following is the most common cause of Down syndrome?
    • A. 

      Illegitimate crossing-over in maternal or paternal meiosis 1

    • B. 

      Non-disjunction in maternal meiosis 1

    • C. 

      Non-disjunction in maternal meiosis 2

    • D. 

      Chromosome breakage near the centromere

    • E. 

      Formation of a triploid gamete

  • 5. 
    A pregnant mother is diagnosed with gestational diabetes.  What is the most likely explanation for the observation that the weight of her infant at birth is much greater than normal?
    • A. 

      Low circulating levels of insulin in the infant during gestation.

    • B. 

      High plasma glucose of the infant during gestation.

    • C. 

      Low plasma glucose of the infant throughout development

    • D. 

      Elevated plasma levels of growth hormone of the infant throughout development

    • E. 

      Elevated glucagon levels of the infant at the time of birth.

    • F. 

      Longer gestational period

  • 6. 
    Through which blood vessel does the most oxygenated blood flow to supply the fetus?
    • A. 

      Umbilical artery

    • B. 

      Pulmonary artery

    • C. 

      Aorta

    • D. 

      Femoral artery

    • E. 

      Internal carotid artery

  • 7. 
    A 72-year-old woman who had been subjected to a radical mastectomy followed by radiation therapy for breast cancer 15 years ago, has recently observed marked swelling of her arm, on the same side as the previous surgery. The skin is indurated and appears irregularly nodular. What is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis?
    • A. 

      Lymphoma

    • B. 

      Kaposi's sarcoma

    • C. 

      Paget’s disease

    • D. 

      Lymphangiosarcoma

    • E. 

      Anaphylactic reaction

  • 8. 
    The rationale for doing estrogen and progesterone receptor studies on breast cancer tissue is that:
    • A. 

      Tumors that are positive for hormone receptors are more effectively treated with drugs like tamoxifen

    • B. 

      Since most breast cancers are hormone receptor -negative testing for receptors identifies the few cancers that can be treated

    • C. 

      Only mucinous (“colloid”) carcinomas are positive and this allows for identification of a subtype of carcinomas with a good prognosis

    • D. 

      The identification of tumor receptor status has no impact on treatment but may be useful epidemiological information for the future

    • E. 

      It identifies a group of tumors with a bad prognosis

  • 9. 
    The gross and histologic presentation of an excised nipple is shown below. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the shown pathology?
    • A. 

      Lobular carcinoma, invasive or in situ

    • B. 

      Ductal carcinoma, invasive or in situ

    • C. 

      Inflammatory carcinoma

    • D. 

      Inflammatory carcinoma

  • 10. 
    A 62 year old woman complains of a “rash on her right breast” Physical examination reveals “eczema-like lesions of the nipple and areola and a 2 cm firm mass a lump in her right breast.  A biopsy of her nipple and areola reveals large pale, vacuolated cells within the squamous epithelium.  What would a biopsy of the breast mass most likely show?
    • A. 

      Intraductal papilloma

    • B. 

      Intraductal Carcinoma

    • C. 

      Lobular Carcinoma

    • D. 

      Inflammatory carcinoma

  • 11. 
    A 55-year-old Caucasian woman presents with an enlarged and painful right breast.  Physical examination reveals a swollen, hyperemic, diffusely indurated and tender on palpation right breast. Multiple axillary lymph nodes are palpable in the lower axilla. Incisional biopsy is performed and the gross and microscopic appearance of the lesion is shown for your evaluation. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
    • A. 

      Acute mastitis

    • B. 

      Chronic mastitis

    • C. 

      Inflammatory carcinoma

    • D. 

      Paget disease

  • 12. 
    A 27-year-old woman presents with a lump in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast. Biopsy showed a wide spectrum of fibrocystic changes.   Which of the following changes is indicative of the greatest risk for subsequent carcinoma of the breast?
    • A. 

      Cystic dilatation of ducts

    • B. 

      Atypical ductal hyperplasia

    • C. 

      Sclerosing adenosis

    • D. 

      Apocrine metaplasia

    • E. 

      Dense fibrosis

  • 13. 
    A 50 year old woman develops an ulcerated, oozing lesion of her right breast, involving the nipple and areola. There has been no response to topical or systemic antibiotics. After careful re-examination her physician detects a barely palpable hard mass just beneath the lesion. The patient’s clinical presentation is most consistent with:
    • A. 

      Atypical eczema

    • B. 

      Syphilis

    • C. 

      Paget disease

    • D. 

      Bowen disease

    • E. 

      Fat necrosis

  • 14. 
    A 34-year-old Hispanic woman presents with the new onset of a bloody discharge. Physical examination reveals a 1-cm freely movable mass that is located directly beneath the nipple. The mass is removed and its microscopic appearance is shown for your evaluation below. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
    • A. 

      Phyllodes tumor

    • B. 

      Intraductal papiloma

    • C. 

      Intraductal carcinoma

    • D. 

      Paget disease