Quiz On Diseases: Exam!

19 Questions | Total Attempts: 198

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Quiz On Diseases: Exam!

There are many different types of disease, and many diseases can threaten or harm your health. The most lethal disease is heart disease, which affects so many men and women in America. Diabetes, obesity, and high blood pressure are some of the significant symptoms of this condition. Everyone who views this quiz will find out more about diseases and possible prevention.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Dr. Loy A 57-year-old man with a history of tobacco and alcohol abuse presents with a 1 cm painless red plaque on his lower gingiva. It has been slowing enlarging for 3 months.  What should you tell the patient?
    • A. 

      This lesion is harmless and shouldn’t be worried about

    • B. 

      We should do a biopsy today

    • C. 

      We should follow this lesion. Come back in 6 months

    • D. 

      We should do fungal and viral cultures today

    • E. 

      I am referring you to a surgeon for a partial mandibulectomy

  • 2. 
    A 20-year-old man presents with a white curdy, membrane on his tongue that scrapes off easily.  A PAS stained smear of the membrane is shown below. He doesn’t smoke or drink.  He does use mouthwash several times a day.  What is the most likely diagnosis?
    • A. 

      Keratosis without dysplasia

    • B. 

      Thrush

    • C. 

      Keratosis with dysplasia

    • D. 

      Herpes infection

    • E. 

      Hairy leukoplakia

  • 3. 
    Dr Bellot A 62-year-old man presents with a long history of smoking 2 packs a day and progressive exertional dyspnea. He states that he has developed a persistent dry cough and has been losing some weight. He is not cyanosed but seems to be struggling to breathe with relatively prolonged expiration. A chest x-ray reveals depressed diaphragms and a long narrow heart shadow. Microscopic examination of his lungs would most likely reveal:
    • A. 

      Airway dilation and fibrous tissue deposition

    • B. 

      Organizing pneumonia and obliteration of bronchioles

    • C. 

      Mucous gland hyperplasia and hypersecretion

    • D. 

      Airspace enlargement and alveolar wall destruction

    • E. 

      Smooth muscle hyperplasia and bronchial narrowing

  • 4. 
    A 35-year-old African-American woman presents with increasing shortness of breath, fever, weight loss, and night sweats for the past 4 months. She is a non-smoker.  Fine rales auscultated in all lung fields. A chest radiograph reveals hilar lymphadenopathy and a reticulonodular pattern in all lung fields. A transbronchial biopsy is performed and microscopically demonstrates numerous small pulmonary non-caseating granulomas. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
    • A. 

      Sarcoidosis

    • B. 

      Bronchopneumonia

    • C. 

      Silicosis

    • D. 

      Lung abscess

    • E. 

      Tuberculosis

  • 5. 
    During a cardiac arrest, a 58-year-old male non-smoker receives cardiopulmonary resuscitative measures and is brought to the hospital, where he is intubated. During the intubation procedure he suffers aspiration of gastric contents; over the next 10 days develops a non-productive cough along with a fever of 37.9 °C. A chest radiograph reveals a 4 cm diameter mass with an air-fluid level in the right lung. AGram stain of the sputum reveals mixed flora. Which of the following conditions is the most likely to have?
    • A. 

      Lung abscess

    • B. 

      Squamous cell carcinoma

    • C. 

      Hyperensitivity pneumonia

    • D. 

      Bronchiectasis

    • E. 

      Bronchopulmonary sequestration

  • 6. 
    A 55-year-old man with a history of heavy smoking for 30 years history was alarmed to experience a sudden episode of hemoptysis. On physical examination, there are no abnormal findings. Sputum cytology examination demonstrates the presence of relatively large atypical cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and orange-pink cytoplasm. Which of the following chest radiographic findings is this man most likely to have?
    • A. 

      Brochopneumonia-like consolidation

    • B. 

      Peripheral nodule

    • C. 

      Atelectasis

    • D. 

      Cystic upper lobe lesions

    • E. 

      Large hilar mass

  • 7. 
    A 40-year-old man with a long history of IV drug abuse is admitted to the hospital with the chief complaints of fever, night sweats, pleuritic chest pain, dyspnea, and fatigue of 2 days duration. Physical examination was remarkable for a temperature of 101.2 °F and a pansystolic ejection murmur at the left sternal border. Transthoracic echogram is positive for small vegetation on the tricuspid valve leaflet. Blood culture report comes positive for coagulase-positive, Gram-positive cocci, later identified as methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. He is started on intravenous nafcillin therapy. What is the target of this antibiotic in the causative bacteria?
    • A. 

      Penicillin-binding proteins

    • B. 

      DNA gyrase

    • C. 

      Catalase peroxidase

    • D. 

      Enolpyruvate transferase

    • E. 

      Peptidyl transferase

  • 8. 
    A 38-year-old man has a 10-mm reaction to the PPD skin test. He does not have any clinical symptoms or radiographic findings suggestive of active tuberculosis. His wife was diagnosed with active pulmonary tuberculosis 2 months ago and is currently on antitubercular therapy. His blood tests indicate normal liver and renal function. Which of the following is one of the current recommendations for managing this patient’s medical situation?
    • A. 

      No treatment required at this stage

    • B. 

      Isoniazid daily for 9 months

    • C. 

      Isoniazid and pyrazinamide for 6 months

    • D. 

      Isoniazid and rifampin for 6 months

    • E. 

      Isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide for 2 months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin for next 4 months

  • 9. 
    A 45-year-old HIV-1 and CMV infected man is diagnosed with CMV retinitis and is started on an antiviral drug that inhibits viral nucleic acid polymerases by associating with their pyrophosphate binding domains.  Which of the following drugs was the man started on?
    • A. 

      Ganciclovir

    • B. 

      Cidofovir

    • C. 

      Foscarnet

    • D. 

      Valganciclovir

    • E. 

      Trifluridine

  • 10. 
    A 2-day-old girl develops an HSV infection for which she is started on IV administration of an appropriate antiviral agent.  Which of the following drugs was the patient given?
    • A. 

      Amantadine

    • B. 

      Acyclovir

    • C. 

      Palivizumab

    • D. 

      Valacyclovir

    • E. 

      Idoxuridine

  • 11. 
    Dr Butler A 23-year-old woman bank teller complained of a dry cough, low-grade fever, and fatigue for the past 2 weeks. Her physician ordered a chest x-ray, which showed interstitial pneumonia in the right lower lobe. A blood test for cold agglutinins was positive. What is a property of the likely causative organism?
    • A. 

      Growth on chocolate agar

    • B. 

      Neither Gram-positive nor Gram-negative

    • C. 

      Gram-positive diplococcus

    • D. 

      Growth on charcoal yeast extract agar

    • E. 

      Small Gram-negative rods

  • 12. 
    A 3-year-old girl is brought to the clinic with fever, sleeplessness, and pulling on her right ear. There is bulging and erythema of the right tympanic membrane. This is the 3rd episode of these symptoms in the past 2 years. Which of the following is the most likely outcome of this illness?
    • A. 

      Permanent hearing loss detected by audiometry

    • B. 

      Perforation of her tympanic membrane

    • C. 

      Recovery while receiving decongestants and anti-histamines

    • D. 

      Recovery while receiving antibiotic syrup

    • E. 

      Insertion of tympanostomy tubes to prevent recurrences

  • 13. 
    A 48-year-old automobile mechanic in Kentucky in good previous health presented with a 2-month history of cough, fever, weight loss, and fatigue. His x-ray showed cavitary pneumonia and a coin lesion in the right upper lobe. Smear and culture of a bronchoalveolar lavage revealed evidence of a fungal infection.   What is the likely diagnosis?
    • A. 

      Aspergillosis

    • B. 

      Histoplasmosis

    • C. 

      Cryptococcosis

    • D. 

      Pneumocystis

    • E. 

      Coccidioidomycosis

  • 14. 
    A 55-year-old male recipient of a liver transplant was receiving immunosuppressive drugs. He developed fever with productive cough and his x-ray showed pneumonia. A sputum specimen contained yellow particles, which the technician reported as “sulfur granules.” What  is a property of the most likely causative pathogen?
    • A. 

      Branching hyphae that invade blood vessels

    • B. 

      Gram-positive cocci in clusters

    • C. 

      Anaerobic branching Gram-positive rods

    • D. 

      Encapsulated budding yeast forms

    • E. 

      Gram-negative rods that secrete mucoid polysaccharide

  • 15. 
    A 40-year-old homeless man with untreated HIV infection presented with a 2-month history of fever, hemoptysis, and weight loss. The shelter for the homeless in which he resided had reported cases of tuberculosis in the past year. His chest x-ray revealed left upper lobe pneumonia. The sputum contained acid-fast bacilli. His tuberculin test was read as negative, without any measurable induration. Which of the following is most likely present in this case?
    • A. 

      Reactivation tuberculosis

    • B. 

      Primary tuberculosis

    • C. 

      Atypical mycobacterial infection

    • D. 

      Ghon complex

    • E. 

      Drug-resistant tuberculosis

  • 16. 
    Dr Bergeron An 8-year-old boy presents with his father to an outpatient clinic with a painful, swollen neck. Patient history reveals that, in the preceding days, the child had been much less active than usual and had had a low-grade fever, headaches, myalgias, and had lost his appetite. Physical examination reveals bilateral parotitis. What are the characteristics of the most likely virus responsible for this child’s illness?
    • A. 

      Enveloped, non-segmented (-)ssRNA

    • B. 

      Enveloped, segmented (-)ssRNA

    • C. 

      Naked, (+)ssRNA

    • D. 

      Naked, dsDNA

    • E. 

      Enveloped, (+)ssRNA

  • 17. 
    A 51-year-old man is hospitalized with fever, chills, shortness of breath, and cough productive of yellow sputum. Physical examination reveals low blood pressure and elevated heart and respiratory rates; rales are heard on auscultation. A chest x-ray shows consolidation in the left lower lobe. Prior to this episode, the man had been complaining of ‘fever, headaches, a runny nose, a sore throat, cough, fatigue, and body aches’, but did not seek medical attention at that time. Which factor contributed to his hospitalization?
    • A. 

      Exposure to a patient with pneumonia while in the waiting room of the emergency department

    • B. 

      Inhibition of apoptosis in virus-infected cells

    • C. 

      Side-effects following immunization with an inactivated vaccine aimed at preventing a yearly seasonal illness

    • D. 

      Exposure to aerosolized shower water particles containing pathogenic bacteria

    • E. 

      Viral infection exposing receptors for pathogenic bacterial adhesion

  • 18. 
    Butler & Faculty An 11-year-old boy presents with sneezing and coughing and has a runny nose, sore throat, but no fever. What is the most likely virus responsible for this child’s illness?
    • A. 

      Adenovirus

    • B. 

      Human parainfluenzavirus

    • C. 

      Influenzavirus

    • D. 

      Coronavirus

    • E. 

      Rhinovirus

  • 19. 
    Dr Drummelsmith A 6-year-old girl presents with high fever and confusion. Physical exam notes a high temperature and nuchal rigidity. A lumbar puncture is performed, and Gram stain of the cerebrospinal fluid reveals red coccobacilli; subsequent culture reveals an isolate that grows on chocolate agar but not blood agar. Susceptibility testing of the isolate reveals resistance to penicillin, erythromycin, and ampicillin, but susceptibility to ampicillin + sulbactam, ciprofloxacin, and ceftriaxone. What mechanism of resistance is most likely being expressed by this isolate?
    • A. 

      Penicillinase

    • B. 

      Altered DNA gyrase

    • C. 

      Small ribosomal subunit methyltransferase

    • D. 

      Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase

    • E. 

      Altered peptidoglycan monomer

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