Biomechanics And Bioengineering Specialty Symposium

12 Questions | Total Attempts: 33

SettingsSettingsSettings
Please wait...
Biomechanics Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    A 56 year old male with DVT has thickened veins and lack of motion of the venous wall as evidenced by duplex ultrasound. Which venous hemodynamic perturbations are likely true for this patient?
    • A. 

      Venous Hypertension

    • B. 

      Lower Flows

    • C. 

      Higher Flows

    • D. 

      A & B

  • 2. 
    A patient with venous outflow obstruction that develops venous hypertension is likely to have changes in stresses as follows:
    • A. 

      Increase in wall hoop stress and decrease in endothelial shear stress

    • B. 

      Increase in wall hoop stress and increase in endothelial shear stress

    • C. 

      Decrease in wall hoop stress and decrease in endothelial shear stress

    • D. 

      Decrease in wall hoop stress and increase in endothelial shear stress

  • 3. 
    On IVUS examination of the iliac-cabal veins in most patients,
    • A. 

      The iliac veins are full but the IVC is partially collapsed

    • B. 

      The iliac veins are collapsed but the IVC is full

    • C. 

      Both the iliac veins and the IVC are full

    • D. 

      Both the iliac veins and the IVC are partially collapsed

  • 4. 
    The gold standard graft for durable revascularization in the patient with critical limb ischemia is:
    • A. 

      Heparin-bonded polytetrafluroroethylene prosthetic

    • B. 

      Human umbilical vein

    • C. 

      Autogenous saphenous vein

    • D. 

      Cryopreserved cadaveric saphenous vein

  • 5. 
    The availability and quality of autogenous vein for bypass is best ascertained in each patient by:
    • A. 

      A thorough physical exam

    • B. 

      Assessment of clinical risk factors

    • C. 

      Evidence of prior vascular interventions

    • D. 

      Performance of ultrasound vein mapping

  • 6. 
    A patient presents to the emergency room with a cellulitic swollen leg at a time when the duplex laboratory is not available to obtain a study. The best way to rule out the diagnosis of DVT is:
    • A. 

      Positive D-dimer and negative Wells score

    • B. 

      Positive D-dimer and positive Wells score

    • C. 

      Negative D-dimer and negative Wells score

    • D. 

      Negative D-dimer and positive Wells score

  • 7. 
    In a patient with a low risk for DVT, a negative D-dimer and negative Wells score carries a >99% chance that the patient does not have a DVT. P-selectin inhibition therapeutically promotes thrombus resolution and prevents vein wall fibrosis. The correct mechanism of action of a P-selectin inhibitor includes:
    • A. 

      Inhibition of P-selectin:PSGL-1 interactions and the release of procoagulant microparticles

    • B. 

      Down regulation of tissue factor

    • C. 

      Down regulation of NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps) release

    • D. 

      Direct Inhibition of Factor Xa

  • 8. 
    A female patient aged 62 years presents with lymphedema of the right leg. The medical history of this patient does not include deep venous thrombosis, erysipelas, or previous radiotherapy, however, the patient had a history of acute coronary syndrome treated surgically using CABG a year prior to this visit. The vein specialist suspects poor lymphatic drainage after the distal part of patient’s right saphenous vein had been harvested for CABG. The definitive test to confirm this diagnosis is:
    • A. 

      Coronary angiography

    • B. 

      Venous duplex ultrasonography

    • C. 

      Testing for pitting and non-pitting oedema of both legs

    • D. 

      Lymphoscintigraphy of both legs

  • 9. 
    Venous wall relaxation can be modulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). MMP-2 interactions with the vein wall is by which of the following mechanisms?
    • A. 

      Significantly increases calcium release from the sarcoplasm reticulum

    • B. 

      Decreased MMP expression during increased vein wall tension

    • C. 

      Inhibits calcium mobilization from extracellular to intracellular

    • D. 

      Does not involve hyperpolarization of smooth muscle cells

    • E. 

      Increases the release of nitric oxide

  • 10. 
    Increased venous wall tension on the rat inferior vena cava (IVC) causes which of the following results?
    • A. 

      Tension-contraction relationship is maximal at 3 grams of tension during KCl depolarization

    • B. 

      Only phenylephrine contractions were reduced at 2 grams for 24 hours, but had no effect on KCl and angiotensin II.

    • C. 

      Only MMP-2 but not MMP-9 expression was reduced at 2 grams of tension for 24 hours compared to control tension of 0.5 grams for 1 hour

    • D. 

      There was a direct linear correlation with decreased tissue contraction with phenylephrine and KCl as the MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression increased

    • E. 

      The immunohistochemistry did not demonstrate any localization of MMP-9 in the media of the IVC

  • 11. 
    Venous remodeling following proximal acute deep venous thrombosis is most apparent on initial venography as
    • A. 

      Neovascularization

    • B. 

      Enlargement of existing collaterals

    • C. 

      Vein wall contraction

    • D. 

      Proximal venous compression

  • 12. 
    A decade after a gunshot wound to the left upper thigh, the patient presents to your clinic with edema and a medial calf ulcer resistant to standard therapy. You can hear a bruit in the left groin and feel a thrill. The most likely diagnosis is
    • A. 

      The May-Thurner Syndrome

    • B. 

      Deep Venous Insufficiency

    • C. 

      An Arterio-Venous Fistula

    • D. 

      A Traumatic Venous Aneurysm

Back to Top Back to top