Biology_self_test_#3

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Biology_self_test_#3

Chapter_5-6-7, DNA replication, Cell division


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which of the following is a "hijacker" hormone examined as an indicator during pregnancy tests?
    • A. 

      Oxxytosin

    • B. 

      Serotonin

    • C. 

      HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin)

    • D. 

      Progesterone

    • E. 

      Estrogen

  • 2. 
    Which of the following disorders is where children are tragically born with shorter than normal telomeres, which causes them to age quickly?
    • A. 

      Klinefelter's syndrome

    • B. 

      Dkown's syndrome

    • C. 

      Turner's syndrome

    • D. 

      Apoptosis syndrome

    • E. 

      Hutchinson-Gilford progeria

  • 3. 
    The two men who figured out the structure of DNA were...
    • A. 

      Watson & Crick

    • B. 

      Clinton & Gore

    • C. 

      Laurel & Hardy

    • D. 

      Mutt & Jeff

    • E. 

      Clark & Riddle

  • 4. 
    The general shape of the DNA molecule is that of a ...
    • A. 

      Ball

    • B. 

      Spiral (helix)

    • C. 

      Flat sheet

    • D. 

      Box

    • E. 

      Nucleoma

  • 5. 
    How many different kinds of nucleotides are there in nucleic acids?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      4

    • D. 

      8

    • E. 

      10

  • 6. 
    This is a Diagram of a...
    • A. 

      Protein

    • B. 

      Fat

    • C. 

      Nucleic acid

  • 7. 
    This is a Molecule is a....
    • A. 

      Single helix

    • B. 

      Double helix

    • C. 

      Polypeptide

  • 8. 
    This is a Molecule of a...
    • A. 

      Deoxyribonucleic Acid

    • B. 

      Ribonucleic Acid

    • C. 

      Protein

  • 9. 
    How many nucleotide units are in this molecule?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      5

    • E. 

      10

  • 10. 
    Which of the following has 3 hydrogen bonds?
    • A. 

      Adenine to thymine

    • B. 

      Cytosine to guanine

    • C. 

      Cytosine to uracil

    • D. 

      Adenine to uracil

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 11. 
    When DNA is coiled up and protein is packed on it, it is then called...
    • A. 

      Chromatin

    • B. 

      Centromere

    • C. 

      Chromosome

    • D. 

      Spindle fiber

    • E. 

      Chromatography

  • 12. 
    DNA is _____ into ______, which is _____ into ______.
    • A. 

      Replicated, protein, coded, RNA

    • B. 

      Translated, RNA, transcribed, protein

    • C. 

      Transcribed, RNA, translated, protein

  • 13. 
    Messenger RNA (mRNA) is made in/at the...
    • A. 

      Mitochondria

    • B. 

      Chloroplast

    • C. 

      Ribosome

    • D. 

      Nucleus

    • E. 

      Cell membrane

  • 14. 
    The gene is copied by...
    • A. 

      Several other genes

    • B. 

      Transfer RNA (tRNA)

    • C. 

      MRNA

    • D. 

      Protein

    • E. 

      The codon

  • 15. 
    How many nucleotides are in one codon?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      4

    • E. 

      20

  • 16. 
    The codon is responsible for lining up a specific...
    • A. 

      RNA

    • B. 

      DNA

    • C. 

      Fatty acid

    • D. 

      Amino acid

    • E. 

      Nucleotide

  • 17. 
    How many different kinds of protein are made by one gene?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      4

    • C. 

      20

    • D. 

      Nearly 100

    • E. 

      Almost infinite

  • 18. 
    How many different amino acids are there in your molecular structure?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      4

    • C. 

      20

    • D. 

      Nearly 100

    • E. 

      Almost infinite

  • 19. 
    If a nucleotide in a codon were changed by mutation, then what would happen?
    • A. 

      Nothing

    • B. 

      RNA would not replicate

    • C. 

      One entire protein would have totally different amino acids

    • D. 

      One amino acid could change

    • E. 

      DNA would not replicate

  • 20. 
    Where are proteins assembled?
    • A. 

      Mitochondria

    • B. 

      Ribosomes

    • C. 

      Chloroplast

    • D. 

      Nucleus

    • E. 

      Nucleolus

  • 21. 
    What kind of RNA carries amino acids to the protein assembly site?
    • A. 

      Endoplasmic

    • B. 

      Messenger RNA (mRNA)

    • C. 

      RRbosomal RNA (rRNA)

    • D. 

      DNA

    • E. 

      Transfer RNA (tRNA)

  • 22. 
    The gene is a portion of the ______ molecule.
    • A. 

      TRNA

    • B. 

      MRNA

    • C. 

      RRNA

    • D. 

      DNA

    • E. 

      Protein

  • 23. 
    If the sequence of nucleotides in one chain of DNA were TATGACCCCGTA, then the sequence in RNA would be...
    • A. 

      TATGACCCCGTA

    • B. 

      ATACTGGGGCAT

    • C. 

      AUACUGGGGCAU

  • 24. 
    In the DNA chain AUACUGGGGCAU, if CAU=lysine, CUG=tyrosine, AUA=methionine, and GGG=leucine then the correct order would be...
    • A. 

      Methionine-tyrosine-leusine-lysine

    • B. 

      Tyrosine-methionine-lysine-leucine

    • C. 

      Lysine-leucine-methionine-tyrosine

    • D. 

      Methionine-tyrosine-lysine-leucine

    • E. 

      Leucine-lysine-methionine-tyrosine

  • 25. 
    DNA is absent _______, while RNA is absent ______.
    • A. 

      Thymine, uracil

    • B. 

      Uracil, thymine

    • C. 

      Cytosine, guanine

    • D. 

      Adenine, thymine

    • E. 

      Thymine, adenine

  • 26. 
    Division of the cytoplasm (not the division of the nucleus) is termed...
    • A. 

      Mitosis

    • B. 

      Karyokinesis

    • C. 

      Cytokinesis

  • 27. 
    Choose the correct order for the phases of mitosis.
    • A. 

      Prophase, anaphase, telophase, metaphase

    • B. 

      Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

    • C. 

      Prophase, telophase, metaphase, anaphase

    • D. 

      Prophase, metaphase, telophase, anaphase

    • E. 

      Telophase, metaphase, anaphase, prophase

  • 28. 
    Uncontrolled cell division is called...
    • A. 

      Mitosis

    • B. 

      Asexual reproduction

    • C. 

      Meiosis

    • D. 

      Cancer

    • E. 

      Fetal development

  • 29. 
    The number of DNA molecules (chromosomes) in a human cell (other than sex cells or chromosomal anomalies) is...
    • A. 

      23

    • B. 

      15

    • C. 

      46

    • D. 

      92

    • E. 

      No definitive number

  • 30. 
    Mitosis can be used for, or can accomplish...
    • A. 

      Growth and development of the organism

    • B. 

      Asexual reproduction

    • C. 

      Repairing and regeneration

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 31. 
    In some one-celled organisms and in some multicellular organisms, cell division produces new individuals that have the same genetic materials as the parent. This is... 
    • A. 

      Asexual reproduction

    • B. 

      Sexually

  • 32. 
    If the environment undergoes radical change, it is best to reproduce...
    • A. 

      Asexual

    • B. 

      Sexually

  • 33. 
    How do daughter cells of mitosis compare to the original cell?
    • A. 

      Same genetically

    • B. 

      Differ genetically

  • 34. 
    When a cell is not dividing, it is in which of the following phases?
    • A. 

      Interphase

    • B. 

      Prophase

    • C. 

      Anaphase

    • D. 

      Metaphase

    • E. 

      Telophase

  • 35. 
    Of a single homologous pair of chromosomes...
    • A. 

      One comes from your father, and one from your mother.

    • B. 

      Both come from your mother if you are female, or both come from your father if you are male.

    • C. 

      Both come from your father if you are female, or both from your mother if you are male.

  • 36. 
    During mitosis, a cell starts with ______ set(s) of chromosomes and ends up with ______ set(s) in each cell.
    • A. 

      1, 2

    • B. 

      1, 1

    • C. 

      2, 2

    • D. 

      2, 1

    • E. 

      0, 1

  • 37. 
    The value of one large egg being made during female meiosis is to...
    • A. 

      Increase the chance of fertilization

    • B. 

      Decrease the chance of fertilization

    • C. 

      Increase the chance of offspring surviving

    • D. 

      Decrease the chance of offspring surviving

    • E. 

      Increase the chance of daughters rather than sons being born

  • 38. 
    How many sets of chromosomes did you receive from your mother?
    • A. 

      0

    • B. 

      1

    • C. 

      2

    • D. 

      4

    • E. 

      23

  • 39. 
    How many sets of chromosomes do you give to any one of your children?
    • A. 

      0

    • B. 

      1

    • C. 

      2

    • D. 

      4

    • E. 

      23

  • 40. 
    Mitosis is possible in...
    • A. 

      Haploid organisms only

    • B. 

      Diploid organisms only

    • C. 

      Both haploid and diploid organisms

    • D. 

      Neither haploid of diploid organiams

    • E. 

      Prokaryotes only

  • 41. 
    If meiosis starts with 40 chromosomes, then it ends with ______ chromosomes in a cell.
    • A. 

      10

    • B. 

      20

    • C. 

      40

    • D. 

      80

    • E. 

      Variable between 0 and 40

  • 42. 
    Synapsis happens during...
    • A. 

      Mitosis only

    • B. 

      Meiosis only

    • C. 

      Both mitosis and meiosis

  • 43. 
    How many sets of chromosomes are in a haploid cell?
    • A. 

      0

    • B. 

      1

    • C. 

      2

    • D. 

      4

    • E. 

      23

  • 44. 
    How many homologous pairs of chromosomes do you have?
    • A. 

      0

    • B. 

      1

    • C. 

      23

    • D. 

      46

    • E. 

      92

  • 45. 
    How many homologous pairs of chromosomes are in a human sperm cell?
    • A. 

      0

    • B. 

      1

    • C. 

      23

    • D. 

      46

    • E. 

      92

  • 46. 
    Homologous pairs of chromosomes always line up during meiosis with paternal chromosomes on one side, and maternal chromosomes on the other side.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 47. 
    Variation during reproduction is produced by...
    • A. 

      Independent assortment of homologs

    • B. 

      Fertilization

    • C. 

      Crossing-over of homologs

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 48. 
    The number of variable gametes produced from the independent assortment of homologous chromosomes in humans is...
    • A. 

      8.4 million

    • B. 

      8.4 billion

    • C. 

      8.4 trillion

    • D. 

      8.4 zillion

    • E. 

      It is impossible to calculate

  • 49. 
    Crossing-over is an exchange between...
    • A. 

      Maternal chromosomes

    • B. 

      Paternal chromosomes

    • C. 

      Chromatids of a chromosome

    • D. 

      Non-homologous chromosomes

    • E. 

      Homologous chromosomes

  • 50. 
    It is quite likely that when a male reproduces a female child he gives her his _______ chromosomes.
    • A. 

      Mothers

    • B. 

      Fathers

    • C. 

      Mothers and fathers

  • 51. 
    The egg sex cell of a horse contains 32 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are in the rest of the cells of the horse?
    • A. 

      8

    • B. 

      16

    • C. 

      32

    • D. 

      64

    • E. 

      128

  • 52. 
    Knowing that chromosomes are really long slender DNA molecules that only appear within the cell when it prepares to divide, then why are chromosomes there?
    • A. 

      To duplicate

    • B. 

      To direct traffic

    • C. 

      To make enzymes as they move about

    • D. 

      To sew with one another

    • E. 

      Make it easier to move DNA

  • 53. 
    Each of the nuclei of your cells (excepting sperm or egg) contains ______ hereditary material.
    • A. 

      The same

    • B. 

      Different

    • C. 

      No

  • 54. 
    The reason a cell that is 2n is reduced to cells that are n is to avoid _______ upon fertilization.
    • A. 

      Crossing-over

    • B. 

      Problems of genetic variation

    • C. 

      Doubling of chromosomal set number each generation

  • 55. 
    Sexual reproduction involves two distinctive processes whose functions complement and compensate for one another. These are...
    • A. 

      Meiosis and mitosis

    • B. 

      Replication and transcription

    • C. 

      Cytokinesis and fertilization

    • D. 

      Mitosis and fertilization

    • E. 

      Meiosis and fertilization

  • 56. 
    Excluding sex linkage, the minimum number of genes required for a trait is...
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      Three

    • D. 

      4

    • E. 

      No minimum number

  • 57. 
    How many genetically different gametes can be formed if you are heterozygous for a trait?
    • A. 

      0

    • B. 

      1

    • C. 

      2

    • D. 

      4

    • E. 

      23

  • 58. 
    Mendel crossed a pure-breeding strain of pea plant with Yellow seeds to a pure-breeding strain for green seeds. Since all offspring were Yellow seeded...
    • A. 

      Yellow is dominant

    • B. 

      Green is dominant

    • C. 

      Yellow is the genotype

    • D. 

      Green is the genotype

    • E. 

      Yellow is the recessive

  • 59. 
    The color yellow is the...
    • A. 

      Genotype

    • B. 

      Phenotype

  • 60. 
    Diabetes is thought to be inherited (at least in some cases) as a recessive gene. Two normal people have a diabetic child. What are the genotypes of the parents?
    • A. 

      Homozygous dominant

    • B. 

      Homozygous recessive

    • C. 

      Heterozygous

    • D. 

      One parent is homozygous dominant, and the other is homozygous recessive

    • E. 

      One parent is homozygous dominant, and the other is heterozygous

  • 61. 
    Each gamete (a product of meiosis) receives only one of the genes of an allelic pair. This is illustrating the Principle (Law) of...
    • A. 

      Gravity

    • B. 

      Dominance

    • C. 

      Recessiveness

    • D. 

      Segregation

    • E. 

      Independent Assortment

  • 62. 
    The phenotype (trait) of an organism is the result of an interaction between the genotype and the...
    • A. 

      Percentage of genes that are recessive

    • B. 

      Genotype of its parents

    • C. 

      Environment

    • D. 

      Set number of chromosomes

  • 63. 
    Which of the following best illustrates the phenomenon of incomplete dominance?
    • A. 

      Red x White ------> Red & White

    • B. 

      White x White ------> White

    • C. 

      Red x White -------> Red

    • D. 

      Red x red ------> Red & White

    • E. 

      Red x White ------> Pink

  • 64. 
    The blood types A, B, AB and O demonstrate inheritance by...
    • A. 

      Sex-linkage

    • B. 

      Recessive genes

    • C. 

      Dominant genes

    • D. 

      Multiple alleles

    • E. 

      Polygenes

  • 65. 
    If you examined a trait like height or skin color and it showed continuous variation with no distinct phenotypic classes, you would suspect it is due to...
    • A. 

      Complete dominance

    • B. 

      Incomplete dominance

    • C. 

      Codominance

    • D. 

      Multiple alleles

    • E. 

      Polygenes

  • 66. 
    In terms of sex chromosomes, a female is...
    • A. 

      XO

    • B. 

      XX

    • C. 

      XY

    • D. 

      YY

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 67. 
    Since there is no other allele present, a single recessive gene on the X-chromosome that is sex-linked will always be expressed in the phenotype of the...
    • A. 

      Male

    • B. 

      Female

    • C. 

      Either male or female

  • 68. 
    Which parent determines the gender of the child?
    • A. 

      Father

    • B. 

      Mother

  • 69. 
    The name of the condition when chromosomes fail to properly separate in meiosis is...
    • A. 

      Double helix

    • B. 

      Daughter cell

    • C. 

      Non-disjunction

    • D. 

      Homologous interruption

    • E. 

      Faulty assortment

  • 70. 
    Mendel used pure-breeding strains of pea plants. What term best describes 'pure-breeding'?
    • A. 

      Homozygous dominant

    • B. 

      Homozygous recessive

    • C. 

      Heterozygous dominant

    • D. 

      Homozygous

    • E. 

      Heterozygous

  • 71. 
    Choose the correct statement.
    • A. 

      Sex-linked traits are always attached to the Y-chromosome

    • B. 

      Y-chromosomes carry more genes than X-chromosomes

    • C. 

      Male offspring are produced when Y-bearing sperm fertilizes an egg.

    • D. 

      Eggs determine the sex of gender.

    • E. 

      None of the above are correct.

  • 72. 
    Natural selection selects...
    • A. 

      Genotypes

    • B. 

      Phenotypes

  • 73. 
    DNA stays the same from generation to generation
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 74. 
    Because there is a greater frequency of 5-fingered people as opposed to 6-fingered people, 5-fingers is the dominant trait.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 75. 
    It is possible to have allelic genes on non-homologous chromosomes.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 76. 
    The argument of nature (genes) vs. nurture (environment) has never been resolved.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 77. 
    Women carry male genes, and men carry female genes.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 78. 
    Prior to a cell undergoing meiosis it must quadruple (increase four times) its DNA in order to produce four new cells.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 79. 
    Holandric genes are exclusively found in men.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 80. 
    All cells continue to divide throughout ones life.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 81. 
    It is probable that some individuals in this world, excluding identical twins, carry exactly the same genes.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 82. 
    No matter what degree of sexual dimorphism there is between human sexes, the genetic difference between the genders (male and female) is merely one gene 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 83. 
    For every female organ a male also has one, and vise-versa.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 84. 
    Chromosomes can be reshuffled during meiosis, so long as a sex cell receives a copy of one chromosome of each homologous pair.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 85. 
    Because crossing-over it is impossible to pass on one complete chromosome of either your mothers or fathers to an offspring.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 86. 
    A single base change in the DNA cannot cause a disorder.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 87. 
    Chromatids of a chromosome are exactly identical.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 88. 
    Meiosis merely reshuffles pre-existing traits, but does not produce anything new or novel.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 89. 
    Mendel's experiments supported the prevalent idea of the blending of traits during sexual reproduction.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 90. 
    All harmful traits are recessive.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 91. 
    When people get an extra chromosome and survive, it is likely the extra chromosome is a long one. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 92. 
    Your teacher believes (knows) that all organisms are mutants.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 93. 
    Identical twins are clones
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False