Remain unchanged due to H+ binding
Remain unchanged due to Mg++ binding
All of the above
Has adapted to different conditions
Is not as important as it used to be
Is being replaced by aerobic respiration
None of the above
ADP and ATP
ATP and NADPH
NAD+ and NADP+
ATP and NADH
CO2 plus H2O
Aminoacids, monosaccharides, fatty acid
CO2, NH3 and H2O
Light, CO2 and water
Two molecules of dihydroxyacetone phosphate
Two molecules of glycerate-3-phosphate
Two molecules of fructose-1,6-bisphos- phate.
Dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glycer- aldehyde-3-phosphate
Secondary alcohol is easier to oxidize than a tertiary one
A tertiary alcohol has more steric strain than the secondary one
Enzyme is assymetric
Oxidation of the secondary alcohol releases more energy than a tertiary one
The succinyl dehydrogenase
Pyruvate dehydrogenase mechanism
Isocitrate dehydrogenase mechanism
Alpha ketoglutarase dehydrogenase
Citrate is exported from the mitochondria and converted to AcCoA
Malate is exported from the mitochondria and then converted
Pyruvate is converted into AcCoA in the cytosol
AcCoA is exported from the mitochondria
The mitochondrial inner membrane space
The mitochondrial inner membrane
Both a and b
A. It is enriched in acidic phospholipids such as diphosphatidyl- glycerol (cardiolipin).
Its phospholipids are enriched in unsaturated fatty acids.
It has a higher lipid to protein ratio.
More highly folded
Protein bound copper
Iron sulfur proteins
Cytochrome c oxidase
Succinate CoQ reductase
Cytochrome bcL complex
A. It is another name for lipoprotein lipase.
B. It becomes activated as the cellular concentration of cAMP increases.
C. It is allosterically inhibited by the binding of malonyl CoA.
D. It is allosterically activated by the binding of citrate.
Acetone, butyric acid, and acetyl-CoA
Acetoacetate, hydroxyacetone phosphate, and butyric acid
Acetone, á-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetate
Acetoacetate, acetyl-CoA, and acetone
A primary alcohol to an aldehyde
a secondary alcohol to a ketone
A saturated to an unsaturated carbon-carbon bond
An aldehyde to a carboxylic acid
The fatty acids are covalently attached to coenzyme A when they pass through the membrane.
Their transport would be best characterized as a facilitated diffusion.
They tend to be transported less as the concentration of malonyl-CoA increases in the cytoplasm.
It involves the transfer of a fatty acid from CoA to carnitine prior to the transport step.
2 moles of NADH
2 moles of FADH2
2 moles of ATP
1 mole of both NADH and FADH2
provide an inner membrane channel for the transport of acylcarnitine
catalyze the formation of acylcarnitine
catalyze the conversion of acylcarnitine to acyl-CoA and carnitine
transfer carnitine to acyl-CoA
It involves the formation of a high energy thioester bond.
Activation is accompanied also by the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP + Pi.
. An acyl-adenylate intermediate is formed.
Hydrolysis of ATP produces AMP and PPi, with the further hydrolysis of PPi to drive this reaction to completion.
Out membrane of mitochondria
Inner membrane of mitochondria
It shuttles NADH across the mitochondrial membrane to yield 2.5 ATP/NADH.
It shuttles "NADH electron equivalents" across the mitochondrial membrane to yield 1.5 ATP/NADH.
Malate is a key component in the shuttle process.
It only operates efficiently when the [NADH] in the cytoplasm is higher than in the matrix.
The elimination of 2-C units at each step
β -oxidation occurs in the mitochondrial matrix
β -oxidation is quantitatively the primary route to degradation
β -oxidation is initiated at the methyl end of the fatty acid