Basic Geology Definitions I

35 Questions

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Geology Quizzes & Trivia

As expected, each field of study has its own terms that set it aside from the other, where some may appear the same but have different meaning depending on context used. Are you a college student taking Geology as a major? If so then the quiz below is just for you. Why don’t you give it a try and see what geology definitions you know?


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which type of rock is an igneous rock that has a mineral makeup between that of granite and basalt?
    • A. 

      Basaltic

    • B. 

      Andesitic

    • C. 

      Aphanitic

    • D. 

      Extrusive

  • 2. 
    What is igneous activity that occurs at earth's surface called?
    • A. 

      Decompression melting

    • B. 

      Aphanitic texture

    • C. 

      Crystallization

    • D. 

      Extrusive

  • 3. 
    Which term is used to describe igneous rocks that contain abundant dark minerals and 50% silica?
    • A. 

      Basaltic

    • B. 

      Aphanitic

    • C. 

      Crystal

    • D. 

      Extrusive

  • 4. 
    Igneous rocks whose crystals are too small for the naked eye to distinguish the minerals by which it is made of.
    • A. 

      Extrusive rock

    • B. 

      Andesitic rock

    • C. 

      Aphanitic texture

    • D. 

      Assimilation

  • 5. 
    Which concept illustrates the relationship between magma and minerals during the formation of igneous rock?
    • A. 

      Crystallization

    • B. 

      Bowen's reaction series

    • C. 

      Decompression melting

    • D. 

      Aphanitic texture

  • 6. 
    Which describes the process of separation of the solid and liquid components of magma?
    • A. 

      Crystallization

    • B. 

      Bowen's reaction series

    • C. 

      Assimilation

    • D. 

      Crystal setting

  • 7. 
    Melting that occurs as rock ascends is called...
    • A. 

      Crystallization

    • B. 

      Assimilation

    • C. 

      Decompression melting

    • D. 

      Basaltic melting

  • 8. 
    The formation and growth of a crystalline solid is called...
    • A. 

      Crystallization

    • B. 

      Assimilation

    • C. 

      Crystal setting

    • D. 

      Decompression melting

  • 9. 
    When magma migrates upward and possibly incorporates some of the same surroundings as its host rock it is called what?
    • A. 

      Aphanitic texture

    • B. 

      Bowen's reaction series

    • C. 

      Assimilation

    • D. 

      Decompression melting

  • 10. 
    What is produced when molten lava cools too rapidly to permit crystallization?
    • A. 

      Glass

    • B. 

      Igneous rock

    • C. 

      Granite

    • D. 

      Felsic rock

  • 11. 
    What kind of rock is formed by the crystallization of molten magma?
    • A. 

      Felsic rock

    • B. 

      Igneous rock

    • C. 

      Glass

    • D. 

      Granitic rock

  • 12. 
    (Blank) is a term used to describe the texture of igneous rocks that contain no crystals.
    • A. 

      Intermediate composition

    • B. 

      Hydrothermal solution

    • C. 

      Aphanitic texture

    • D. 

      Glassy texture

  • 13. 
    Which is igneous rock that is composed mainly of light-colored silicates?
    • A. 

      Glass

    • B. 

      Felsic

    • C. 

      Granitic

    • D. 

      Intermediate

  • 14. 
    A term used to describe granitic igneous rock is...
    • A. 

      Granitic

    • B. 

      Felsic

    • C. 

      Glass

    • D. 

      Intermediate

  • 15. 
    Which common volcanic rock contains at least 25% dark silicate minerals (mainly amphibole pyroxene, and biotite mica)?
    • A. 

      Intermediate composition

    • B. 

      Igneous rock

    • C. 

      Granitic rock

    • D. 

      Hydrothermal solution

  • 16. 
    What escapes from a mass of magma during the later stages of crystallization?
    • A. 

      Igneous rock

    • B. 

      Hydrothermal solution

    • C. 

      Granite

    • D. 

      Glass

  • 17. 
    What is igneous rock formed below earth's surface called?
    • A. 

      Magma

    • B. 

      Pegmatitic texture

    • C. 

      Phaneritic texture

    • D. 

      Intrusive rock

  • 18. 
    What is magma that has reached earth's surface called?
    • A. 

      Lava

    • B. 

      Mafic rock

    • C. 

      Intrusive rock

    • D. 

      Sedimentary rock

  • 19. 
    Basaltic rock is sometimes called this because of its high concentration of ferromagnesian minerals which comes from the Latin term for iron.
    • A. 

      Magma

    • B. 

      Intrusive

    • C. 

      Pegmatitic

    • D. 

      Mafic

  • 20. 
    A body of molten rock found at depth and can contain any dissolved gases and crystals.
    • A. 

      Lava

    • B. 

      Mafic rock

    • C. 

      Magma

    • D. 

      Intrusive rock

  • 21. 
    A means by which the composition of magma can be altered is called...
    • A. 

      Magma mixing

    • B. 

      Melting

    • C. 

      Partial melting

    • D. 

      Magmatic differentiation

  • 22. 
    The formation of one or more secondary magmas from a parent magma is called...
    • A. 

      Magma mixing

    • B. 

      Magmatic differentiation

    • C. 

      Partial melting

    • D. 

      Phaneritic texture

  • 23. 
    What is the liquid portion of magma called?
    • A. 

      Lava

    • B. 

      Phaneritic texture

    • C. 

      Pegmatitic texture

    • D. 

      Melt

  • 24. 
    When igneous rocks melt over a range of a few hundred degrees, what occurs?
    • A. 

      Magma mixing

    • B. 

      Magmatic differentiation

    • C. 

      Partial melting

    • D. 

      Hydrothermal solution

  • 25. 
    Texture in which crystals are all longer than one centimeter in diameter is called...
    • A. 

      Pegmatitic texture

    • B. 

      Phaneritic texture

    • C. 

      Glassy texture

    • D. 

      Mafic texture

  • 26. 
    Texture in which crystals are about the same size and are large enough to be seen by the naked eye is called...
    • A. 

      Mafic texture

    • B. 

      Glassy texture

    • C. 

      Pegmatitic texture

    • D. 

      Phaneritic texture

  • 27. 
    Large crystals in a porphyry that are embedded in a matrix of finer-grained crystals are called what?
    • A. 

      Pyroclastic

    • B. 

      Magmatic

    • C. 

      Phenocryst

    • D. 

      Ultramafic

  • 28. 
    Igneous rock texture characterized by two different crystal sizes which include the phenocrysts and the groundmass.
    • A. 

      Vesicular texture

    • B. 

      Glassy texture

    • C. 

      Pheneritic texture

    • D. 

      Porphyritic texture

  • 29. 
    Igneous rock texture resulting from the consolidation of rock fragments that are ejected during an eruption.
    • A. 

      Pyroclastic texture

    • B. 

      Porphyritic texture

    • C. 

      Glassy texture

    • D. 

      Vesicular texture

  • 30. 
    Category of igneous rock made up entirely of ferromagnesian minerals.
    • A. 

      Volatiles

    • B. 

      Volcanic

    • C. 

      Mafic

    • D. 

      Ultramafic

  • 31. 
    A term that describes aphanitic igneous rocks that contain many small cavities called vesicles.
    • A. 

      Volcanic

    • B. 

      Vesicular texture

    • C. 

      Pyroclastic texture

    • D. 

      Porphyry

  • 32. 
    Gaseous components of magma are called what?
    • A. 

      Phenocrysts

    • B. 

      Volatiles

    • C. 

      Magmas

    • D. 

      Melts

  • 33. 
    Which term describes the activities, structures, and/or rock types of volcanoes?
    • A. 

      Vesicular

    • B. 

      Volatiles

    • C. 

      Volcanic

    • D. 

      Felsic

  • 34. 
    A dry form of lava resembling clinkers is called what?
    • A. 

      Aa

    • B. 

      Batholith

    • C. 

      Dike

    • D. 

      Fissure

  • 35. 
    A large mass of igneous rock that has melted and intruded surrounding strata at great depths is called...
    • A. 

      Volatiles

    • B. 

      Batholith

    • C. 

      Aa

    • D. 

      Intrusive lava