App Exam 2

52 Questions

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Bar Exam Quizzes & Trivia

APP exam from spring 2011


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    • A. 

      A fall in capillary bp

    • B. 

      A fall in the concentration of plasma proteins

    • C. 

      A decrease in venous pressure

    • D. 

      A decrease in blood volume

  • 2. 
    • A. 

      Poor kidney fxn resulting in increased salt retention

    • B. 

      Standing in an upright position but not moving muscles in the lower extremities

    • C. 

      Blocked or limited lymphatic drainage in the legs

    • D. 

      Dec of platelets and other clotting factors

  • 3. 
    For autoregulation of the arterioles in the biceps muscle of the arm, which of these mediators would result in vasodilation of these vessels?
    • A. 

      Inc tissue levels of lactate

    • B. 

      Inc tissue levels of oxygen

    • C. 

      Dec tissue levels of carbon dioxide

    • D. 

      Dec tissue levels of prostaglandins

  • 4. 
    • A. 

      As the bp in an arteriole rises, the sm muscle in the arteriole wall relaxes

    • B. 

      As the bp in an arteriole rises, the sm muscle in the arteriole wall would not change the amount of contraction or relaxation

    • C. 

      As the bp in an arteriole rises, the sm muscle in the arteriole wall would increase contraction

  • 5. 
    Which of the following statements is true?
    • A. 

      Prostacyclin inhibits platelet aggregation and promotes vasodilation

    • B. 

      Bradykinin promotes vasoconstriction

    • C. 

      Endothelial cells are permanently incapable of producing prostacyclin once they are exposed to aspirin

    • D. 

      Endothelin-1 is an important vasodilator

  • 6. 
    • A. 

      Angiotensin II is released by cells in the kidney

    • B. 

      Inc angiotensin II levels will result in an inc in bp

    • C. 

      The system involving angiotensin II will be activated when plasma sodium levels are high

    • D. 

      Bradykinin will directly inhibit angiotensin pathway

  • 7. 
    • A. 

      Ne

    • B. 

      Angiotnesin II

    • C. 

      Insulin

    • D. 

      Prostacyclin

  • 8. 
    • A. 

      Bradykinin is a vasodilator

    • B. 

      Activating the clotting cascade can activate bradykinin formation

    • C. 

      Bradykinin activation is stimulated by angiotensin converting enzyme

    • D. 

      Bradykinin stimulates endothelial cells to release nitric acid

  • 9. 
    • A. 

      This hormone promotes the retention of sodium

    • B. 

      This hormone inhibits renin secretion

    • C. 

      This hormone is secreted when the bp is low

    • D. 

      This hormone has a similar action as the hormone vasopressin

  • 10. 
    When the body is at rest, which organ rec'vs the greatest cardiac output?
    • A. 

      Skeletal muscle

    • B. 

      Heart

    • C. 

      Brain

    • D. 

      Kidney

  • 11. 
    • A. 

      H+

    • B. 

      CO2

    • C. 

      H2O

    • D. 

      O2

  • 12. 
    • A. 

      CSF is found in the subarachnoid space of the meninges

    • B. 

      The composition of CSF is similar to plasma except that the CSF has few proteins in it

    • C. 

      The CSF allows the brain to float, thus reducing the weight and pressure on the cranial nerves

    • D. 

      The CSF bathes the neurons of the brain

  • 13. 
    Which of the following statements is true?
    • A. 

      The brain consumes about 10% of the oxygen utilized by the body, when the body is at rest

    • B. 

      The structures of the brainstem are less susceptible to hypoxia than regions of the cortex

    • C. 

      Glucose provides about 50% of the energy needs of the brain

    • D. 

      The overall blood flow to the brain will steadily inc as the bp increases

  • 14. 
    During an ischemic stroke for the brain, what causes death of brain cells?
    • A. 

      An inc in glutamate levels

    • B. 

      A dec in oxygen levels causing loss of atp

    • C. 

      A dec in oxygen levels causing loss of glucose transport into the cell

    • D. 

      An inc in CO2 levels

  • 15. 
    • A. 

      When blood flow is stopped to a portion of the heart tissue, necrosis of the myocardium takes place w/in 6-8 minutes

    • B. 

      The portion of the myocardial wall that rec'vs the least amnt of blood flow is located next to the cardiac endothelial cells

    • C. 

      Coronary blood flow thru the left coronary artery is greatest during systole

  • 16. 
    The formation of an atheroma include all the following EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      Migration of sm muscle cells form the media to the intima layer

    • B. 

      Migration of blood monocytes into the intima layer

    • C. 

      Accumulation of foam cells containing lipids in the media layer

    • D. 

      Protrusion of the atheroma into the lumen of the blood vessel

  • 17. 
    • A. 

      Helps to mobilize cholesterol from developing and exsisting atheromas and thus reduces the risk from atherosclerosis

    • B. 

      Helps to deliver cholesterol to peripheral tissue thus increasing the risk for atherosclerosis

  • 18. 
    • A. 

      Bt the ages of 40-50, women are more at risk than men for atherosclerosis

    • B. 

      A person w/ diabetes mellitus has a greatly inc risk for atherosclerosis-induced gangrene of the legs

    • C. 

      Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids is a risk factor for atherosclerosis

    • D. 

      Atherosclerosis primarily affects the small arteries and arterioles

  • 19. 
    • A. 

      A chronic inc in aldosterone levels

    • B. 

      A chronic inc in nitric oxide levels

    • C. 

      An inability of the kidney to remove sodium from the body

    • D. 

      An inc in obesity

  • 20. 
    If a person had obstruction of a coronary artery that occluded 75% of the lumen, which of the following would characterize their sx?
    • A. 

      The person would have symptomatic ischemia of the heart that could be induced by exercise

    • B. 

      The person would have chronic ischemia of the heart that occurred even at rest

    • C. 

      That person would likely have suffered a myocardial infarction

  • 21. 
    • A. 

      A person w/ a systolic pressure of 130 mmHg is considered hypertensive

    • B. 

      It is estimated that 40% of the population are hypertensive

    • C. 

      Left ventricular hypertrophy often occurs from chronic hypertension

    • D. 

      Right atrial hypertrophy often occurs from chronic hypertension

  • 22. 
    What would not by true ab htn?
    • A. 

      Essential htn, left untreated, can reduce life expectancy by 10-20 yrs

    • B. 

      The pathology of htn is from a dec luminal size of the lg and medium-sized arteries

    • C. 

      The prevalence of htn in the african-american population is higher than most populations in the USA

    • D. 

      W/ time, htn can injure the aorta and put it at risk for aneurysms

  • 23. 
    If a person had a dramatic dec in their plasma proteins, what would likely happen to their bp?
    • A. 

      They would become hypotensive

    • B. 

      Bp would not chng

    • C. 

      They would become hypertensive

  • 24. 
    Which of the following statements is false?
    • A. 

      Ischemia of the heart can result from coronary atherosclerosis

    • B. 

      W/ severe myocardial ischemia, this can disrupt the contractility of the ventricular cells w/in 60 seconds

    • C. 

      Blood tests will be positive for cardiac creatin kinase w/ion 2-4 hrs after a myocardial infarction

    • D. 

      W/ severe myocardial ischemia, the early myocardial changes are very damaging and generally irreversible

  • 25. 
    • A. 

      Patent ductus arteriosus

    • B. 

      Sudden cardiac death

    • C. 

      Myocardial infarction

    • D. 

      Angina pectoris

  • 26. 
    • A. 

      HR is increased

    • B. 

      Output from right ventricle is decreased

    • C. 

      Bp in the pulmonary veins is decreased

    • D. 

      The arterial PCO2 levels will decrease

  • 27. 
    • A. 

      The capillary bp on the arterial end of the capillary

    • B. 

      The capillary bp on the venus end of the capillary

    • C. 

      The plasma colloid osmotic pressure

  • 28. 
    • A. 

      The impairment of contractility of the myocardial cells is a major factor

    • B. 

      The cell layer lining the left ventricle thickens and is often a source of mural thrombi

    • C. 

      Exercise therapy is an effective way to slow the pathology

    • D. 

      Congestive heart failure can be a typical outcome of this disease

  • 29. 
    • A. 

      Pulmonary stenosis

    • B. 

      Atrial septal defect

    • C. 

      Ventricular septal defect

    • D. 

      Patent ductus arteriosus

  • 30. 
    • A. 

      Mitral valve stenosis

    • B. 

      Rt ventricular hypertrophy

    • C. 

      Cyanosis

    • D. 

      Pulmonary hypertrophy

  • 31. 
    • A. 

      Chronic alcoholism--dilated cardiomyopathy

    • B. 

      Anthracycline administration as a chemotherapeutic agent--dilated cardiomyopathy

    • C. 

      Genetic mutations that effect the myocardial sarcomeres--hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    • D. 

      Administering catecholamines in high concentrations--restrictive cardiomyopathy

  • 32. 
    Rheumatic fever is a multisystem inflammatory disease.  Which of these statements is not true concerning rheumatic fever?
    • A. 

      Can inv polyarthritis of the lg joints of the body

    • B. 

      Can be recurrent, causing cumulative damage of the heart

    • C. 

      A consequence of the pathology is left ventricular hypertrophy

    • D. 

      In the heart, typically will produce stenosis of the mitral valve

    • E. 

      Bc of the damage,a person is at risk of an embolism to the brain

  • 33. 
    Which of the following statements is true?
    • A. 

      A watershed area of the cortex is more protected from global cerebral ischemia bc it has a blood supply from two arterial sources

    • B. 

      The brain stem neurons are less vulnerable to global cerebral ischemia than neuronal populations in the cortex

    • C. 

      Cell loss occurs quicker in the heart versus the brain following an ischemic incident

    • D. 

      A person will lose consciousness only after oxygen flow to the brain is disrupted for 60 sec or more

  • 34. 
    • A. 

      Myocardial infarction--cardiogenic shock

    • B. 

      Outflow obstruction by a pulmonary embolism--cardiogenic shock

    • C. 

      Extensive burns--hypovolemic shock

    • D. 

      Third degree heart block--hypovolemic shock

  • 35. 
    The max vol of air that can be moved out during a single breath following a maximal inspiration.
    • A. 

      Vital capacity

    • B. 

      Inspiratory reserve vol

    • C. 

      Tidal vol

    • D. 

      Expiratory reserve vol

    • E. 

      Residual vol

  • 36. 
    The amnt of air inhaled or exhaled in one breath during relaxed, quiet breathing.
    • A. 

      Vital capacity

    • B. 

      Inspiratory reserve volume

    • C. 

      Tidal volume

    • D. 

      Expiratory reserve volume

    • E. 

      Residual volume

  • 37. 
    • A. 

      700 m^2

    • B. 

      100 m^2

    • C. 

      70 m^2

    • D. 

      25 m^2

  • 38. 
    • A. 

      Contraction

    • B. 

      Relaxation

  • 39. 
    • A. 

      Contraction

    • B. 

      Relaxation

  • 40. 
    • A. 

      The amnt of oxygen in the alveoli

    • B. 

      The amnt of oxygen dissolved in the plasma

    • C. 

      The amnt of oxygen dissolved in the tissue around the capillaries

  • 41. 
    According to Boyle's Law, what happens to the pressure of the air in the lungs when the diaphragm expands the vol of the lungs?
    • A. 

      The pressure increases from where it had been

    • B. 

      The pressure stays the same as before

    • C. 

      The pressure decreases from where it had been

  • 42. 
    • A. 

      When the plasma pH is more acidic, more oxygen will be released from blood cells for a specific PO2 level

    • B. 

      When the body's temp is reduced, more oxygen will be released from blood cells for a specific PO2 level

  • 43. 
    1. When the body is at rest, which organ rec'vs the greatest cardiac output?
    • A. 

      Sk muscle

    • B. 

      Heart

    • C. 

      Brain

    • D. 

      Kidney

  • 44. 
    2. What regulates vasodilation in the cutaneous blood vessels of the skin?
    • A. 

      Sympathetic stimulation

    • B. 

      Parasympathetic stimulation

    • C. 

      High circulation levels of epinephrine

    • D. 

      Local production of bradykinin coupled w/ a dec in constriction of the sm muscles

  • 45. 
    3. Which statement ab cerebral spinal fluid is false?
    • A. 

      Csf is fnd in the subarachnoid space of the meninges

    • B. 

      The composition of csf is similar to plasma except that the csf has few proteins in it

    • C. 

      The csf allows the brain to float thus reducing the weight and pressure on the cranial nerves

    • D. 

      The csf bathes the neurons of the brain

  • 46. 
    4. When is blood flow at the lowest levels for the left coronary artery?
    • A. 

      At the beginning of systole

    • B. 

      At the end of systole

    • C. 

      At the beginning of diastole

    • D. 

      The flow is fairly even during either systole or diastole

  • 47. 
    5. For autoregulation of the coronary arteries, which of these mediators would not result in vasodilation of the coronary vessels?
    • A. 

      Inc levels of hydrogen ions

    • B. 

      Inc levels of prostaglandins

    • C. 

      Dec levels of CO2

    • D. 

      Dec levels of O2

  • 48. 
    6. What factors inc the mean arterial pressure (assuming that the other factors are held constant).
    • A. 

      A dec in the ave arterial radius

    • B. 

      A dec in the overall HR

    • C. 

      A dec in stroke vol

    • D. 

      A dec in venous return

  • 49. 
    7. What is the likely role of high levels of HDL in atherosclerosis?
    • A. 

      Helps mobilize cholesterol from developing and existing atheromas and thus reduces the risk from atherosclerosis

    • B. 

      Helps to deliver cholesterol to peripheral tissue thus inc the risk for atherosclerosis

  • 50. 
    8. Which is false concerning the vasomotor center for controlling HR?
    • A. 

      It is located in the medulla of the brainstem

    • B. 

      Rec'vs info ab bp from baroreceptors

    • C. 

      Controls the hr but not the stroke volume

    • D. 

      Is influenced by the hypothalamus

  • 51. 
    9. T/F:   For glucose in the blood stream to move across the blood-brain barrier into the brain requires glucose transporters and the presence of insulin.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 52. 
    10.  What is true about angiotensin II?
    • A. 

      Angiotensin II is released by cells in the kidney

    • B. 

      Bradykinin will directly inhibit the angiotensin pathway

    • C. 

      The system involving angiotensin II will be activated when plasma sodium levels are high

    • D. 

      Angiotensin II will stimulate the release of aldosterone