AP Psychology Final Test

102 Questions

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AP Psychology Quizzes & Trivia

This test is structured like the AP Exam and many of the questions are real questions from previous AP exams.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    1) If there is a .8 correlation between hand size and brain size, then there is a:
    • A. 

      A. weak positive correlation

    • B. 

      B. strong positive correlation

    • C. 

      C. weak negative correlation

    • D. 

      D. strong negative correlation

    • E. 

      E. no correlation

  • 2. 
    This man campaigned to make psychology its own separate science and made the first laboratory for psychology research. 
    • A. 

      G. Stanely Hall

    • B. 

      B. F. Skinner

    • C. 

      Sigmund Freud

    • D. 

      Wilhelm Wundt

  • 3. 
    Pete Psych examined the effects of room temperature on the effectiveness of studying. He took the first 50 students who came to school and asked them to participate in the experiment. He treated each student equally and told them what was going on. Then, pete executed the experiment and found that the closer to 71.8 degrees Fahrenheit the room was, the more effective the studying. What was Pete's error? 
    • A. 

      Social desirability bias

    • B. 

      Sampling bias

    • C. 

      Placebo effect

    • D. 

      Experimenter bias

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 4. 
    The "All-or-None" law states that: 
    • A. 

      Either a neuron fires off, or it doesn't

    • B. 

      All of the hormones are released into the bloodstream at once

    • C. 

      They Synaptic Cleft absorbs every neurotransmitter or none

    • D. 

      Either all of the neurons in the Central Area are effected or none are

  • 5. 
    An Electroencephalography (EEG) studies the brain by: 
    • A. 

      Stimulating a portion of the brain with electricity and observing the effects

    • B. 

      Enhancing or suppressing activity in a particular region of the brain

    • C. 

      Monitoring electrical activity in the brain

    • D. 

      Monitoring radioactive chemicals as they flow through the blood into the brain

  • 6. 
    The part of the brain that acts as a relay system by monitoring all incoming information and sending it to the correct place
    • A. 

      Thalamus

    • B. 

      Medulla

    • C. 

      Cerebrum

    • D. 

      Pons

  • 7. 
    Ethnocentrism is: 
    • A. 

      Behavior explained in terms of Psychological processes

    • B. 

      The mental process involved in acquiring knowledge

    • C. 

      An emphasis on the unique qualities of humans

    • D. 

      Viewing ones group as superior and as the standard judging

  • 8. 
    The requirements for control group are: 
    • A. 

      Random Sampling

    • B. 

      Random Assignment

    • C. 

      Results must be due to independent variable

    • D. 

      All of the Above

  • 9. 
    In order to use deception in an experiment, the experimenter must: 
    • A. 

      Tell the participants that they will be deceived in some way

    • B. 

      Fully debrief the participant after the experiment is over

    • C. 

      Only deceive when necessary

    • D. 

      Both A & C are correct

    • E. 

      Both B & C are correct

  • 10. 
    Which of the following is not a part of the Pheripheral Nervous System? 
    • A. 

      Central Nervous System

    • B. 

      Somatic Nervous System

    • C. 

      Autonomic Nervous System

    • D. 

      Sympathetic Nervous System

  • 11. 
    When asked which of two countries has a larger population, participants are likely to judge the country that is more familiar to them as being more populous. Which of the following best explains this finding? 
    • A. 

      A means-end analysis

    • B. 

      The representativeness heuristic

    • C. 

      The availability heuristic

    • D. 

      Algorithms

    • E. 

      Inductive Reasoning

  • 12. 
    An individual with damage to Wernicke's area is most likely to have difficulty with 
    • A. 

      Identifying an object held in the hand but not seen

    • B. 

      Planning what to wear to a party

    • C. 

      Remembering the name of a person in a photograph

    • D. 

      Comprehending a spoken request for information

    • E. 

      Distinguishing between red and green

  • 13. 
    They psychoanalytic concept of repression suggests a difficulty in the functioning of which aspect of memory? 
    • A. 

      Encoding

    • B. 

      Short-term memory

    • C. 

      Procedural memory

    • D. 

      Explicit memory

    • E. 

      Retrieval

  • 14. 
    Which psychologist reported that infant attachment to another goes beyond the satisfaction of the need for nourishmnet? 
    • A. 

      Albert Bandura

    • B. 

      Jean Piaget

    • C. 

      Harry Harlow

    • D. 

      Erik Erikson

    • E. 

      Kondrad Lorenz

  • 15. 
    Edward L. Thorndike argued that responses that lead to satisfying outcomes are more likely to be repeated, and that responses followed by unpleasant outcomes are less likely to be repeated. This became known as the law of
    • A. 

      Reinforcement

    • B. 

      Associations

    • C. 

      Punishment

    • D. 

      Effect

    • E. 

      Outcomes

  • 16. 
    When trying to solve a problem, Bret uses a logical, step-by-step formula called
    • A. 

      A heuristic

    • B. 

      Incubation

    • C. 

      Insight

    • D. 

      Priming

    • E. 

      An algorithm

  • 17. 
    It is well established that certain autonomic responses such as heart rate, perspiration, and respiration change under stress. In view of the fact that people generally have stronger autonomic responses when lying than when telling the truth, it follows that the polygraph would be a foolproof approach to lie detection. Which statement best explains why the polygraph is not more widely used in courtrooms and in testing of job applicants? 
    • A. 

      Most people can avoid detection when they lie

    • B. 

      Physiological arousal is much the same for several emotions, so the polygraph cannot always reliably distinguish guilt from other reactions.

    • C. 

      A significant number of people show paradoxical autonomic reactions, responding more strongly when telling the truth than when lying.

    • D. 

      In controlled studies, the polygraph has correctly identified guilty individuals in only a small percentage of cases.

    • E. 

      The polygraph has been shown to be reliable only in highly emotional cases, such as child abuse and spying.

  • 18. 
    The principles of operant conditioning are best illustrated by 
    • A. 

      Exposing a client to anxiety-provoking stimuli

    • B. 

      Replacing a response to a stimulus with an alternative response

    • C. 

      Deep relaxation techniques

    • D. 

      A token economy to reinforce adaptive behaviors

    • E. 

      Development of intrinsic motivation

  • 19. 
    A man is feeling depressed about his inability to provide for his family after losing his job. The fact that the patient is currently unemployed is coded on which axis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)? 
    • A. 

      Axis I

    • B. 

      Axis II

    • C. 

      Axis III

    • D. 

      Axis IV

    • E. 

      Axis V

  • 20. 
    Researchers find that there is a significant, positive correlation between the number of hours students sleep and their grades. The researcher would be justified in concluding that 
    • A. 

      Earning good grades causes people to sleep more.

    • B. 

      Sleeping more causes students to perform better in school.

    • C. 

      Students who earn good grades tend to sleep more than those who do not.

    • D. 

      More sleep has beneficial impact on students' grades.

    • E. 

      Sleep deprivation has no impact on school performance.

  • 21. 
    In phase one of a study, a researcher classically conditions a dog to salivate to the ringing of a bell. In the second phase, the researcher pairs a flashing light with the ringing of the bell. After several pairings of the light and the bell, the dog will
    • A. 

      No longer salivate when the bell is rung

    • B. 

      Only salivate when the bell is rung

    • C. 

      Salivate when the light is flashed

    • D. 

      Stop salivating when the light is flashed

    • E. 

      Salivate when the researcher comes into the room

  • 22. 
    Jason is attending a parade that features the local high school band. Jason's friend Brent plays the trombone in the band. It is difficult for Jason to hear Brent play at the parade. Which of the following would best allow Jason to hear Brent's trombone? 
    • A. 

      Sensory adaptation

    • B. 

      Selective attention

    • C. 

      Perceptual constancy

    • D. 

      Weber's law

    • E. 

      Functional fixedness

  • 23. 
    In psychological research, which of the following is most appropriate for identifying cause and effect? 
    • A. 

      Participant observation

    • B. 

      Survey methodology

    • C. 

      Case study

    • D. 

      Experimentation

    • E. 

      Correlational techniques

  • 24. 
    The region of the brain most involved in the experience of emotions is the 
    • A. 

      Cerebellum

    • B. 

      Basal Ganglia

    • C. 

      Limbic System

    • D. 

      Reticular Activating System

    • E. 

      Parasympathetic Nervous System

  • 25. 
    Which part of the cerebral cortex receives information about temperature, pressure, touch, and pain? 
    • A. 

      Motor cortex

    • B. 

      Prefrontal cortex

    • C. 

      Temporal lobe

    • D. 

      Occipital lobe

    • E. 

      Parietal lobe

  • 26. 
    Visual negative afterimages are a result of 
    • A. 

      Opponent-processes

    • B. 

      Simultaneous contrast

    • C. 

      Spatial summation

    • D. 

      Brightness oversensitivity

    • E. 

      Color intensity

  • 27. 
    During REM sleep, which of the following is most likely to occur? 
    • A. 

      Slowed respiration

    • B. 

      Sleepwalking

    • C. 

      Stable blood pressure

    • D. 

      Decreased heart rate

    • E. 

      Suppressed muscle tone

  • 28. 
    Which of the following illustrates a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement? 
    • A. 

      Receiving five dollars weekly for completing household chores

    • B. 

      Receiving a grade of A on every paper submitted in a course

    • C. 

      Winning the lottery after playing many times

    • D. 

      Receiving a dollar for each mile completed in a charity walkathon

    • E. 

      Being given increased use of the family car after reaching age 18

  • 29. 
    The concepts of functional fixedness refers to the fact that 
    • A. 

      Experts solve problems intuitively while beginners solve them by trial and error

    • B. 

      Solutions to problems often occur suddenly after an incubation period

    • C. 

      Individuals differ in their ability to visualize how objects will appear when rotated in space

    • D. 

      Individuals often do not see unusual uses or applications for familiar objects

    • E. 

      Learning under partial reinforcement is very resistant to extinction

  • 30. 
    This past year donna was promoted from eighth to ninth grade and was assigned a new school locker with a new combination. Donna has found that she has trouble remembering her new combinatino because it is similar to her old one. The memory problem Donna is experiencing is most probably a result of 
    • A. 

      Sensory memory decay

    • B. 

      Proactive interference

    • C. 

      Retroactive interference

    • D. 

      State-dependent memory

    • E. 

      Encoding failure

  • 31. 
    Current research suggest that a sense of self-efficacy is most likely to be associated with 
    • A. 

      A high degree of social compliance

    • B. 

      A low threshold for emotional arousal

    • C. 

      A stable external attributional style

    • D. 

      An external locus of control

    • E. 

      An internal locus of control

  • 32. 
    According to Erik Erikson, the major developmental task during adolescence is to achieve a sense of 
    • A. 

      Competence

    • B. 

      Responsibility

    • C. 

      Integrity

    • D. 

      Identity

    • E. 

      Intimacy

  • 33. 
    In which of the following Piagetian stages is propositional reasoning most likely to be used? 
    • A. 

      Secondary circular reasoning

    • B. 

      Preoperational

    • C. 

      Formal operational

    • D. 

      Concrete operational

    • E. 

      Internalization of schemes

  • 34. 
    According to psychoanalytic theory, one of the most important functions of the ego is to 
    • A. 

      Facilitate gratification of desires at an appropriate time

    • B. 

      Govern behavior prior to the development of the superego and the id

    • C. 

      Achieve immediate gratification of desires

    • D. 

      Satisfy the demands of the superego

    • E. 

      Act as the conscience of the individual

  • 35. 
    Which of the following best illustrates a humanistic approach to personality? 
    • A. 

      Establishing gender schema in the development of sex roles

    • B. 

      Recognizing the importance of unconscious forces and biological instincts

    • C. 

      Using functional analyses to specify external variables that regulate behavior

    • D. 

      Emphasizing personal growth and achievement of individual potential

    • E. 

      Exploring the childhood roots of behavior

  • 36. 
    The reliability of a test is best indicated by which of the following? 
    • A. 

      The difficulty of the test for the intended population of test takers

    • B. 

      The spread of scores on the test

    • C. 

      The extent to which scores on the test correlate with a different measure of performance

    • D. 

      The degree to which scores on the test form a normal distribution

    • E. 

      The consistency of scores on repeated administrations of the test

  • 37. 
    Which of the following sets of numbers has the largest standard deviation? 
    • A. 

      -2, -1, 0, +1, +2

    • B. 

      1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2.00, 2.25, 2.50, 2.75, 3.00

    • C. 

      2, 6, 10, 14, 18

    • D. 

      5.756, 5.765, 5.890, 5.895, 5.923

    • E. 

      91, 92, 93, 94, 95

  • 38. 
    An individual who experiences major distortions of reality is most likely suffering from which of hte following types of disorders? 
    • A. 

      Anxiety

    • B. 

      Mood

    • C. 

      Adjustment

    • D. 

      Schizophrenic

    • E. 

      Bipolar

  • 39. 
    A person with agoraphobia is best described as an individual who 
    • A. 

      Displays suicidal behavior in stressful situations

    • B. 

      Shows little regard for social norms

    • C. 

      Suffers from an irrational fear and avoidance of public places

    • D. 

      Suffers from chronic fatigue and paranoia in social situations

    • E. 

      Shows excessive mood swings without warning

  • 40. 
    Jared wants to use the foot-in-the-door technique to try to convince his parents to buy him a car. Which of the following would most clealry demonstrate his correct application of the technique? 
    • A. 

      He asks his parents for a very expensive truck, and when they refuse, he asks for an economy car.

    • B. 

      He tells his parents that he will sacrifice half his allowance for a year if they will buy him a car.

    • C. 

      He asks his parents to buy him a bicycle, and when they agree to do that, he asks them to buy him a car instead.

    • D. 

      He tells his parents that if they buy him a car, he will wash their car every week and drive his little sister to school.

    • E. 

      Before asking his parents to buy him a car, he comments on what a fantastic job they have done in raising him.

  • 41. 
    With which of the following would a cognitively oriented therapist most likely be concerned? 
    • A. 

      The number of negative self-statements made by the patient

    • B. 

      The temperament of the patient as a child

    • C. 

      The number of individuals in the patient's household

    • D. 

      The physiological makeup of the patient

    • E. 

      The responses made by the patient on a projective test

  • 42. 
    Social learning experiments on the modeling of aggresssive behavior have demonstrated that 
    • A. 

      Children are not affected by watching violence on television

    • B. 

      Abusive parenting accounts for most children's aggressive acts

    • C. 

      Children can develop aggressive behavior simply by watching others perform aggressive acts

    • D. 

      Children's aggressive behavior must be reinforced for it to be repeated

    • E. 

      Children imitate aggressive behavior seen on television only if the media violence is performed by children

  • 43. 
    "I am primarily interested in thinking processes; I am a _______________ psychologist." 
    • A. 

      Cognitive

    • B. 

      Learning

    • C. 

      Perception

    • D. 

      Personality

  • 44. 
    Like Carl Rogers, I believe people choose to live more creative and meaningful lives. My name is
    • A. 

      Wertheimer

    • B. 

      Washburn

    • C. 

      Skinner

    • D. 

      Maslow

  • 45. 
    Of the following, who is a humanistic psychologist? 
    • A. 

      Sigmund Freud

    • B. 

      Carl Rogers

    • C. 

      B. F. Skinner

    • D. 

      John Watson

  • 46. 
    The final step (within the ear) required to convert vibrations into sound sensatins is movement of the 
    • A. 

      Hair cells

    • B. 

      Cochlea

    • C. 

      Pinna

    • D. 

      Ossicles

  • 47. 
    Which theory of hearing explains the perception of lower sounds? 
    • A. 

      Tone

    • B. 

      Place

    • C. 

      Frequency

    • D. 

      Auditory

  • 48. 
    The theory of color vision which states that the visual system analyzes informaiton into 'either-or' messages is the ___________ theory. 
    • A. 

      Opponent-process

    • B. 

      Trichromatic

    • C. 

      Primary-color

    • D. 

      Polaroid

  • 49. 
    Black and white vision with greatest sensitivity under low levels of illumination describes the function of
    • A. 

      The cones

    • B. 

      The visual pigments

    • C. 

      The rods

    • D. 

      The phosphenes

  • 50. 
    The fact that we see negative afterimages supports which theory of color vision? 
    • A. 

      Opponent-process

    • B. 

      Trichromatic

    • C. 

      Image formation

    • D. 

      Both opponent-process and trichromatic

  • 51. 
    Unpleasant stimuli may raise the threshold for recognition. This phenomenon is called
    • A. 

      Aversion stimulation

    • B. 

      Absolute threshold

    • C. 

      Perceptual defense

    • D. 

      Unconscious guard

  • 52. 
    Secondary reinforcers are
    • A. 

      Almost never effective

    • B. 

      Much more effective than primary reinforcers

    • C. 

      Innate

    • D. 

      Learned

  • 53. 
    Which form of learning would most likely be studied in a Skinner box? 
    • A. 

      Classical conditioning

    • B. 

      Vicarious conditioning

    • C. 

      Operant conditioning

    • D. 

      Conditioned emotional responses

  • 54. 
    A child is frightened by a loud noise while playing with a cat. If the child leanrs to fear the cat, it can be said that the cat was 
    • A. 

      The UR

    • B. 

      A generalization gradient

    • C. 

      The US

    • D. 

      A CS

  • 55. 
    A child bitten by a white dog is not afraid of black dogs. This is an example of 
    • A. 

      Discrimination

    • B. 

      Spontaneous recovery

    • C. 

      Shaping

    • D. 

      Generalization

  • 56. 
    A rat learns to push a button in order to turn on a tone previously associated with food. The button pushing has been rewarded by a(n) _________________reinforcer. 
    • A. 

      Unconditioned

    • B. 

      Primary

    • C. 

      Secondary

    • D. 

      Generalized

  • 57. 
    Your handsome successful boyfriend winks at you each time before he tells you "I love you." Your expectation when he winks is a(an) 
    • A. 

      Unconditioned stimulus

    • B. 

      Conditioned response

    • C. 

      Conditioned stimulus

    • D. 

      Unconditional response

  • 58. 
    The process through which a response is taught by rewardin gsuccessive approximations to the final desired response is 
    • A. 

      Extinction

    • B. 

      Fading

    • C. 

      Shaping

    • D. 

      Secondary Reinforcement

  • 59. 
    A child who occasionally gets rewarded with candy after asking her grandmother for a 'treat' is being rewarded on a _________ schedule.
    • A. 

      Fixed ratio

    • B. 

      Variable ratio

    • C. 

      Fixed interval

    • D. 

      Partial interval

  • 60. 
    The problems of observers seeing only what they expect to see is called
    • A. 

      Observer bias

    • B. 

      The experimenter effect

    • C. 

      The effects of the observer

    • D. 

      The halo effect

  • 61. 
    Giving placebos in drug experiments is necessary to 
    • A. 

      Counteract the random assignment of subjects.

    • B. 

      Counteract the side effects of the drug.

    • C. 

      Control for the effects of suggestion and expectation.

    • D. 

      Keep control subjects from knowing they have been given the drug.

  • 62. 
    Which of the following could serve as an experimental hypothesis? 
    • A. 

      Although 25% of U.S. drivers say that they use the seatbelts in their cars, only 14% really do.

    • B. 

      A case history of multiple personality appeared to be caused by traumatic childhood experiences.

    • C. 

      College women who are anxious tend to want to be together.

    • D. 

      As the temperature increases, the number of hit batters in baseball increases.

  • 63. 
    Theories explain results, predict future outcomes, and 
    • A. 

      Rely only on naturalistic observations

    • B. 

      Guide research for future studies

    • C. 

      Rely only on surveys

    • D. 

      Rely only on case studies

  • 64. 
    Which of the following coefficients of correlation indicates the weakest relaitonship between two sets of variables? 
    • A. 

      0.08

    • B. 

      -0.29

    • C. 

      0.48

    • D. 

      -1.00

  • 65. 
    A 70-year-old man defines middle age as 50 years of age. A 10-year-old child defines middle age as 35 years of age. Their estimates differ because of 
    • A. 

      Selective attention

    • B. 

      Perceptual constancy

    • C. 

      Perceptual defense

    • D. 

      Their frame of reference

  • 66. 
    The organizational principle demonstrated by the stimuli below is known as XOXOX XOXOX XOXOX XOXOX XOXOX
    • A. 

      Continuity

    • B. 

      Figure-ground

    • C. 

      Similarity

    • D. 

      Nearness

  • 67. 
    The text's illustration of the police officer's faulty 'eyewitness' identification is an example of 
    • A. 

      The fact that perceptions are often reconstructions of events

    • B. 

      The low degree of accuracy of human phi phenomenon

    • C. 

      Perceptual closure operating in a real life situation

    • D. 

      An 'innocence of vision' in stressful situations

  • 68. 
    You observe two cars of identical make and model. Although one roars away and its image on your retina is changed, you still perceive the cars as identical. this phenomenon is 
    • A. 

      Size constancy

    • B. 

      Shape constancy

    • C. 

      Concept constancy

    • D. 

      Form constancy

  • 69. 
    A major criticism of ESP research is that 
    • A. 

      If the experimenter really believes in ESP, he or she is much more likely to interpret coincidence as cause-and-effect.

    • B. 

      ESP researchers have made no attempt to be objective or scientific

    • C. 

      Parapsychological skills are too consistent to be real

    • D. 

      Researchers have been unwilling to investigate psychic phenomena in laboratory settings

  • 70. 
    The tendency to complete a fiture is called
    • A. 

      Continuation

    • B. 

      Similarity

    • C. 

      Continuity

    • D. 

      Closure

  • 71. 
    __________ is an amino acid that can help people sleep and can be found in a glass of ______________.
    • A. 

      Teratogen; orange juice

    • B. 

      Tetracycline; natural sparkling water

    • C. 

      Tryptophan; milk

    • D. 

      Thalidomide; wine

  • 72. 
    Which of the following is a correct match? 
    • A. 

      Stage 1- light sleep

    • B. 

      Stage 2 - beta waves

    • C. 

      Stage 3 - alpha waves

    • D. 

      Stage 4 - sleep spindles

  • 73. 
    Which of the following is classified as a stimulant? 
    • A. 

      Alcohol

    • B. 

      Cocaine

    • C. 

      Marijuana

    • D. 

      Morphine

  • 74. 
    Sleeptalking 
    • A. 

      Occurs most often in association with night terrors

    • B. 

      Is the outward expression of dream content

    • C. 

      Occurs during sleep stages 3 & 4

    • D. 

      Occurs during REM sleep and is therefore rather brief

  • 75. 
    Which of the following could you learn to do in your sleep? 
    • A. 

      Math

    • B. 

      Foreign language

    • C. 

      Touch a switch on cue

    • D. 

      Dream analysis

  • 76. 
    Dreams usually
    • A. 

      Occur twice nightly

    • B. 

      Last only about five minutes each

    • C. 

      Are about ninety minutes apart with each succeeding dream lasting a little longer

    • D. 

      Are instantaneous, being a flash of visual images

  • 77. 
    Which of the following is primary characteristic of dream sleep?
    • A. 

      Irregular heart rate and blood pressure

    • B. 

      Sexual arousal

    • C. 

      Increased muscle tension

    • D. 

      Rapid eye movements

  • 78. 
    Which stage of sleep typically has spindles
    • A. 

      First

    • B. 

      Second

    • C. 

      Third

    • D. 

      Fourth

  • 79. 
    When making the "attribution error," we tend to overestimate the importance of ____________ in judging the behavior of others. 
    • A. 

      Personal factors

    • B. 

      Situational factors

    • C. 

      Intelligence

    • D. 

      Motivation

  • 80. 
    People who think their ethnic, national, or religious group is superior to others are called
    • A. 

      Authoritarian

    • B. 

      Dogmatic

    • C. 

      Ethnocentric

    • D. 

      Rigid

  • 81. 
    You do not want a large, unattractive political sign in your yard. However, if you initially agree to put a small sign in your window, later you are more likely to allow the large sing in your yard. This course of events is described by the 
    • A. 

      Foot-in-the-face technique

    • B. 

      Low-ball technique

    • C. 

      Door-in-the-face effect

    • D. 

      Food-in-the-door effect

  • 82. 
    In his classic studies of conformity, Asch demonstrated that
    • A. 

      Size of the majority does not influence how many people will conform

    • B. 

      A majority of one produces about as much conformity as a majority of eight

    • C. 

      Lack of unanimity greatly reduces the pressure to conform

    • D. 

      Obedience to authority was determined by the authority's perceived referent power

  • 83. 
    In Adler's view, the main strivingof personality is for
    • A. 

      Dominance

    • B. 

      Sophistication

    • C. 

      Instincts

    • D. 

      Superiority

  • 84. 
    An overly strict or harsh superego will cause
    • A. 

      Increasing levels of primary process thinking

    • B. 

      An antisocial personality

    • C. 

      Inhibition, rigidity, or intolerable guilt

    • D. 

      A breakdown of the libido

  • 85. 
    Concerning pure extraversion and pure introversion, it is most accurate to say
    • A. 

      Person is either one or the other

    • B. 

      Most people fall somewhere between these extremes

    • C. 

      These terms were coined by the famous Swiss psychologist, Gordon Allport

    • D. 

      They represent basic physical traits

  • 86. 
    Classifying people as having either a Type A or type B personality has been used to predict 
    • A. 

      Competency as a parent

    • B. 

      Chances of suffering a heart attack

    • C. 

      Success in education

    • D. 

      Chances of developing a serious mental illness

  • 87. 
    Rogers calls the image of the person you would like to be the 
    • A. 

      Ego ideal

    • B. 

      Self archetype

    • C. 

      Ideal self

    • D. 

      Reinforced self

  • 88. 
    Which personality theories attempt to explain behavior by focusing on the inner workings of the personality including internal conflicts
    • A. 

      Trait

    • B. 

      Behavioristic

    • C. 

      Psychodynamic

    • D. 

      Humanistic

  • 89. 
    Babies who don't hear normal speech during their first year may have impaired language abilities because of
    • A. 

      The human genome sequence

    • B. 

      The language sensitive period

    • C. 

      The period of motor primacy

    • D. 

      Genetic abnormalities

  • 90. 
    Environmental factors that shape development include all of the following except
    • A. 

      Quality of learning

    • B. 

      Intelligence

    • C. 

      Quality of nutrition

    • D. 

      Culture

  • 91. 
    You leave your child wiht a babysitter. When you return, your child ignores you. Your child's behavior indicates a(an) _________ attachment.
    • A. 

      Securely attached

    • B. 

      Secure-avoidant

    • C. 

      Insecure-avoidant

    • D. 

      Insecure-ambivalent

  • 92. 
    Competent children who are characterized by autonomy, self-control, and curiosity are often a consequence of the parenting style described as 
    • A. 

      Authoritarian

    • B. 

      Authoritative

    • C. 

      Permissive

    • D. 

      Submissive

  • 93. 
    The autonomic nervous system contains two branches called the 
    • A. 

      Spinal nerves and cranial nerves

    • B. 

      Somatic and spinal systems

    • C. 

      Sympathetic and parasympathetic systems

    • D. 

      Parasympathetic and spinal systems

  • 94. 
    ___________ is the correct sequence of events in communicating a stimulus (such as stepping on a tack) to another neuron.
    • A. 

      Stimulus - electrical impulse - neurotransmitter - receptor site

    • B. 

      Electrical impulse - receptor site - neurotransmitter - stimulus

    • C. 

      Receptor site - electrical impulse - stimulus - neurotransmitter

    • D. 

      Receptor site - stimulus - electrical impulse - neurotransmitter

  • 95. 
    The functions of the amygdala include
    • A. 

      Delivery of electrical stimulation to the limbic system

    • B. 

      Stopping electrical stimulation to the limbic system

    • C. 

      Stimulating the 'pleasure' centers of the limbic system

    • D. 

      Helping us react to dangerous stimuli through a quick fear response

  • 96. 
    Does having a larger brain make a person smarter? 
    • A. 

      Recent research found a positive correlation between intelligence and the size of several higher brain structures

    • B. 

      The overall volume of gray matter is not correlated with IQ test scores

    • C. 

      Brain size alone determines human intelligence

    • D. 

      Environment has clearly been found to be the sole determinant of human intelligence

  • 97. 
    The cerebral cortex is 
    • A. 

      The two large hemispheres that cover the upper part of the brain

    • B. 

      The highest and largest brain area in humans

    • C. 

      The bundle of fibers connecting the cerebral hemispheres

    • D. 

      The outer layer of the cerebrum

  • 98. 
    Brain centers for most vital functions are
    • A. 

      Distributed randomly throughout the cerebral cortex

    • B. 

      Localized in the left cerebral hemisphere

    • C. 

      Localized in the right cerebral hemisphere

    • D. 

      Localized deep within the brain in the upper brainstem

  • 99. 
    The __________ describes the relationship between arousal level, task difficulty, and efficiency of performance. 
    • A. 

      Arousal theory

    • B. 

      Drive reduction theory

    • C. 

      Yerkes-Dodson Law

    • D. 

      Inverted-U function

  • 100. 
    Which of the following is an assumption of arousal theory?
    • A. 

      Zero level of arousal is the most desirable

    • B. 

      High levels of arousal are the most desirable

    • C. 

      Optimal levels of arousal exist for each person

    • D. 

      Optimal levels of arousal exist for various activities

  • 101. 
    Free Response #1 A. Statistics are often used to describe and interpret the results of intelligence testing.
    • Describe the three measures of central tendency (mean, median, and mode)
    • Describe a skewed distribution
    • Relate the three measures of central tendency to a normal distribution
    • Relate the three measures of central tendency to a positively skewed distribution
    • An intelligence test for which the scores are normally distributed has a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. Use this informaiton to describe how the scores are distributed. 
    • In two normal distributions, the means are 100 for Group 1, and 115 for group 2. Can an individual in group 1 have a higher score than the mean score for group 2? Explain. 
    B. Apply knowledge of psychological research in answering the following questions about intelligence scores. 
    • Explain why norms for standardization intelligence tests are periodically updated. 
    • Describe how to determine whether an intelligence test is biased. 
  • 102. 
    Free Response #2 A. Define the following concepts. 
    • Cognitive dissonance
    • Conformity
    • Incentive motivation
    • Negative reinforcement
    • Physiological addiction
    B. Use one specific example for each of the concepts in part A to explain how the concept might relate to either the development of or the continuation of a smoking habit. It is not necessary to use the same example for each concept.