A requirement that states lower their legal drinking age to eighteenas a condition of receiving funds through federal highway grant programs
Media criticism of public officials during an election campaignperiod
The Supreme Court's ability to overturn a lower court decision
The requirement that presidential appointments to the SupremeCourt be approved by the Senate
The election of the President by the electoral college rather thanby direct election
An open primary
A blanket primary
A closed primary
A runoff primary
A presidential preference primary
Has significant personal wealth
Adds balance and appeal to the national ticket
Comes from the same ideological wing of the party as the President
Can serve as the most important domestic policy adviser to the President
Can effectively preside over the Senate
Serve as fund-raising organizations for challengers
Provide members of Congress with unbiased information regarding proposed legislation
Consult with the President regarding domestic policy
Encourage broader participation in politics among the electorate
Raise campaign funds to support favored candidates
I and II only
III and IV only
II, III, and IV only
Hold hearings on proposed legislation
Oversee the actions of the executive branch of the government
Decide which bills should be considered by the full Senate
Conduct hearings that make information available to the public
Reconcile differences in bills passed by the House and Senate
Justices are free from direct political pressures
Justices remain accountable to the public
Justices are encouraged to make politically popular decisions
Cooperation between the judicial and legislative branches is assured
Presidents are encouraged to seek younger nominees for the Supreme Court
The seniority system plays no role in the House and therefore committees must play a larger role
The Constitution mandates the type of committee structure in the House
Committee members are appointed by the President
The House is so large that more work can be accomplished in committees than on the floor
The majority party in the House prefers to give priority to the work of the committees
Its original jurisdiction
Its appellate jurisdiction
Instruction from the solicitor general
The special master's certification of cases for review
Congress' certification of cases for review
Using the media to draw attention to the legislative program
Assigning legislative liaisons in the Executive Office of the President to lobby legislators
Denying campaign reelection funds to legislators who oppose the President's policy stand
Exploiting a partisan majority for the President's party in both the House and Senate
Reminding legislators of high popularity ratings for the President in public opinion polls
Threatening to ask Congress to impeach specific judges
Using the media to build consensus for the President's position
Requesting that Congress reduce the term of office that judges may serve
Using the appointment process to select judges with judicial philosophies similar to those of the President
Pressuring Congress to pass the appropriate legislation to override judicial opinions
State legislative decisions desegregating public accommodations
State court decisions outlawing poll taxes
The passage of voting-rights legislation by Congress
Executive orders mandating affirmative action
The Supreme Court decision declaring statemandated school segregation to be unconstitutional
It protects the right to express opinions even without the actual use of words.
It protects the use of language deemed obscene by the courts.
It allows citizens to disobey laws that they believe to be unjust.
It is protected from infringement by the federal government but not from infringement by state governments.
It cannot be limited in any manner.
Revealed the necessity of both adding the Bill of Rights to the Constitution and creating a new system of checks and balances
Demonstrated the intensity of antiratification sentiment within the thirteen states
Indicated that a strong, constitutionally designed national government was needed to protect property and maintain order
Convinced the delegates attending the Constitutional Convention to accept the Connecticut Plan
Reinforced the idea that slavery should be outlawed in the new Constitution
Vested in local governments
Vested in the regional governments
Vested in the central government
Divided between the central government and regional governments
Divided between regional governments and local governments
Jewish voters tend to vote Republican
Protestant voters tend to be more liberal than Roman Catholics on economic issues.
More women than men identify themselves as Republicans.
Rural voters are more likely to support Democratic candidates than are urban voters.
African American Democrats tend to support the more liberal candidates within their party.
A member of the House in whose district the corporation has a plant
A member of the White House staff concerned about the issue
A member of the staff of the Senate committee handling a matter of concern to the corporation
A federal judge in whose court a case important to the corporation is being heard
A journalist for a major newspaper concerned about the issue
Replacement of national party conventions by national primaries for each party
Increasing importance of presidential primaries rather than state conventions
A sharply declining role for political action committees (PAC's)
Decreasing cost of campaigns
Increasing control by political party leaders over outcomes
Specially appointed investigative bodies
Joint committees of the two houses of Congress
Committees created for each session
Permanent subject-matter committees
Advisory staff agencies
Commissioning officers in the armed forces
Addressing the Congress on the state of the union
Granting pardons for federal offenses
Forming new cabinet-level departments
Budget and Impoundment Control Act
Presidential Disability Act
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Persian Gulf War Resolution
Appeal the Court's decision to the District of Columbia's Court of Appeals.
Formally request the President to veto the Court's decision.
Remove certain members of the Court and replace them with new members.
Try to amend the Constitution.
Reenact the same law.
Members of Congress only occasionally are interested in and pay attention to constituents.
The legislative process is frequently lengthy, decentralized, and characterized by compromise and bargaining.
Lobbyists and political action committees (PAC's) successfully induce most members of Congress to trade their votes for campaign contributions.
The growth in the size of Congress as an organization is the principal cause of growth in the federal budget deficit.
Debate in both houses is structured by elaborate rules enacted by leaders of the majority party.
The President may declare war.
The President must finance any war efforts from a special contingency fund.
The President must bring troops home from hostilities within 60 to 90 days unless Congress extends the time.
He President may not nationalize state militias without congressional consent.
The President may not send troops into hostilities without a declaration of war from Congress or a resolution from the United Nations.
Minorities and women
Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
Supreme Court decision in Sweatt v. Painter
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Montgomery bus boycott
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Necessary and proper clause
States cannot interfere with or tax the legitimate activities of the federal government.
The judicial branch cannot intervene in political disputes between the President and Congress.
The federal Bill of Rights places no limitations on the states.
The federal government has the power to regulate commerce.
It is within the judiciary's authority to interpret the constitution.
The use of private property is regulated by the government
Governments communicate with each other
Public attitudes toward government are measured and reported
Political values are passed to the next generation
Children are trained for successful occupations
Party platform adopted at the national convention
Vice-presidential running mate
Endorsement by political incumbents
Appeal of the candidates' spouses
I and II only
III and IV only
I, IV, and V only
II, III, and V only
III, IV, and V only
Debate by a determined minority in either chamber cannot be halted.
The rules in each chamber are determined by the majority whip.
The rules are specified in Article I of the Constitution
The rules can be changed by the President during a national emergency
The House operates more by formal rules, while the Senate operates more on informal understandings
The House and Senate vote for impeachment, and the Supreme Court reaches a guilty verdict.
The House votes for impeachment, and the Senate conducts a trial and reaches a guilty verdict.
The House and Senate both vote for a bill of impeachment
Only the House votes for a bill of impeachment.
A criminal court finds the President guilty of "high crimes and misdemeanors."
Expressing detailed, ideologically distinct programs
Centralizing public authority
Linking citizens to the political process
Increasing domination of the political process by elites
Lobbying members of Congress
The United States Constitution spells out all of the categories of cases that the Supreme Court must hear.
The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court has the authority to select the cases that the Court will hear.
The Solicitor General in the Department of Justice determines the Supreme Court's agenda.
The Supreme Court is free to choose the cases it hears with only a few limitations.
The Attorney General screens cases for consideration by the Court.
The Federal Election Commission (FEC)
The state legislatures
The House Rules Committee
A conference committee of the House and Senate
The director of the United States Census Bureau
I and II only
II and III only
I, II, and III
Separation of powers
Innovation within bureaucratic agencies
Decentralization in the Senate
Lack of party discipline in the House
Tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War period
An increase in public expectations for services from the federal government
Economic and domestic problems such as inflation, unemployment, and civil rights issues
Increasing United States involvement in international affairs
Legislation granting the President the power to impound funds appropriated by Congress
The line-item veto
Authorization of spending
Rule against malapportionment in state legislatures
Void state statutes that permitted school segregation
Invalidate state abortion statutes
Expand the rights of criminal defendants
Increase protection for First Amendment freedoms
Unfair police interrogation
Biased jury selection
Imprisonment without trial
Unjustified police surveillance
Not specifically granted to the national government or denied to the states
Implied in the Fifth Amendment
Listed specifically in the Tenth Amendment
Exercised by both national and state governments
Granted to states as part of the implied powers doctrine
As a result of a temporary shift in the popular coalition supporting one or both parties
Whenever a third party has secured more than fifteen percent of the presidential vote
Each time a Republican has been elected President
When voter turnout has declined significantly from the previous election
When groups of voters have changed their traditional patterns of party loyalties
Voted overwhelmingly for Republican candidates.
Voted overwhelmingly for Democratic candidates
Voted overwhelmingly for radical candidates
Turned out at a lower rate than the rest of the electorate
Turned out at the same rate as the rest of the electorate
Day-to-day campaign activities
The platforms of the major parties
Candidates' policy stands on domestic issues
Candidates' stands on foreign policy issues
Candidates' experience and qualifications
The Democratic candidate will receive 5 electoral votes, the Republican will receive 4, and the independent will receive 2.
The Democratic candidate will receive 6 electoral votes and the Republican will receive 5.
The Democratic candidate will receive all 11 electoral votes.
The votes will not be allocated until there has been a runoff election between the Democratic and Republican candidates.
The House of Representatives will determine the allocation ofthe electoral votes.
Parties increasingly identify themselves with coherent ideologies to attract large blocs of voters.
The percentage of voters identifying themselves as either Democrats or Republicans has been declining since the 1970's.
National party organizations are generally the strongest party organizations.
It is increasingly difficult for third parties to gain more than two percent of the popular vote.
Most candidates prefer to run as independents rather than as Democrats or Republicans
Establish post offices
Regulate commerce with foreign nations
Regulate interstate commerce
The work of a committee ends when it submits a bill to the full House or Senate for consideration.
An individual representative or senator can serve on only one committee and one subcommittee
Membership on key committees such as House Rules and Senate Finance is limited to fixed terms.
Standing committees oversee the bureaucracy's implementation of legislation.
Committee recommendations tend to have little influence on floor voting.
Separation of powers
President, Congress, Supreme Court
President, House majority leader, Senate majority leader
Interest group, Senate majority leader, House majority leader
Executive department, House majority leader, President
Executive department, Congressional committee, interest group
A majority election
A proportional election
A plurality election
A simple election
An indirect election
Cabinet members generally maintain close independent ties to Congress
Cabinet members generally view their position only as a stepping-stone to further their own political ambitions
Cabinet members are not permitted to disagree publicly with the President
Presidential goals often conflict with the institutional goals of individual cabinetlevel agencies
Only half of all cabinet members can be members of the President's party
Role in moving legislation out of subcommittees
Role in mediating interstate conflicts
Ability to convince Congress to fund most projects it supports
Ability to mobilize public opinion in support of legislative initiatives
Ability to set specific guidelines after receiving a general mandate from Congress
Guarantees freedom of speech to all citizens
Prevents prior restraint of the press.
Prohibits the setting up of a state church.
Defines the concept of dual citizenship
Allows citizens to enter freely into contracts with other citizens.
Rights of gay men and lesbian women
Right of privacy
Right to an abortion
Right to freedom from cruel and unusual punishment
Right of women to equal protection before the law