Acute And Chronic Renal Failure

35 Questions

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Renal Failure Quizzes & Trivia

Acute kidney failure is a condition that means that the kidneys do not filter out waste in the blood as expected and is extremely fatal within hours or days. Do you believe you have covered the system in detail and are now able to answer questions about it with ease? Give the quiz a try and see if it is true.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    _______  ________ is the inability of kidneys to remove accumulated metabolites from the blood.  It results in alterations in __________, ________ balance, and an __________ in substances that are normally completely excreted.
  • 2. 
    What are the two stages of renal failure:
  • 3. 
    Check the underlying causes of renal failure:
    • A. 

      Renal pathology

    • B. 

      Systemic disease

    • C. 

      Urologic defects of non-renal origin such as trauma, surgery, or pregnancy

  • 4. 
    Acute renal failure is comprised of 2 phases. Phase 1 is classified as ___________ phase and phase 2 is classified as __________ phase.
  • 5. 
    An overload of BUN, creatinine, and uric acid (nitrogenous wastes) in the blood is known as __________, which occurs with ________ renal failure.
  • 6. 
    "Acute on chronic" is a _________ of ________ renal failure, which is a rapid reduction in renal function in patients with previously stable chronic disease.
  • 7. 
    If oligouric phase is prolonged in acute renal failure, what are some serious conditions that may develop:
    • A. 

      GI bleeds

    • B. 

      HTN

    • C. 

      Neuromuscular

    • D. 

      Muscle weakness

  • 8. 
    In phase 1 of acute renal failure, urine output is greatly _______, and there is _________ BUN, creatinine, potassium, phosphate, which causes metabolic _________.
  • 9. 
    When the diuretic phase of acute renal failure begins, this indicates that the ________ have recovered to the extent that ________ excretion is possible.  This phase usually begins ________ (before or after) renal function has returned to normal, therefore, BUN and creatinine is still ________ and there is an excessive loss of ______ and ________.
  • 10. 
    If patient has no urine output, doppler is useful in distinguishing between ______  ________  _______ and ___________ acute renal failure. This is vital to _______ and _________.
  • 11. 
    In pre-renal acute renal failure, the RI is _______.
  • 12. 
    With chronic renal failure, the kidneys appear _______ and ________.
  • 13. 
    Causes of acute renal failure:
    • A. 

      ATN (Most common; > .8)

    • B. 

      ACN

    • C. 

      Acute glomerulonephritis

    • D. 

      Amyloidosis

    • E. 

      Urinary obstruction

    • F. 

      Massive infection

    • G. 

      Vascular obstruction

    • H. 

      Renal infarct

  • 14. 
    This is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with extensive amyloid deposits in the glomerulus and arterioles, which may cause complete obliteration of glomerulus; excessive deposits of protein, which really affects the heart.
  • 15. 
    Sono appearance of acute renal failure depends on the ______; the kidneys can be _________ or _________ and an ________ cortical echogenicity is seen as renal failure progresses from acute to chronic.
  • 16. 
    _______  ______  _______ is an irreversible condition characterized by diminished function of the nephrons resulting in decreased glomerular filtration and renal functions, and leads to end stage renal disease and renal insufficiency.
  • 17. 
    Treatment of chronic renal failure:
    • A. 

      Dialysis

    • B. 

      Transplant

    • C. 

      Conservative therapy

  • 18. 
    ________  ________  ________  _________ is seen with patients undergoing dialysis. They develop multiple cysts in native and allograft kidneys. They are usually asymptomatic, appear sonographically as multiple cysts of varying sizes and variable echogenicity.
  • 19. 
    _______ is usually performed 2-3 times per week and is described as a machine used to filter out toxins and waste products that are normally removed from the blood by the kidneys.
  • 20. 
    Check all of the following that are described as peri-renal fluid collections:
    • A. 

      Urinoma

    • B. 

      Hematoma

    • C. 

      Lymphocele

    • D. 

      Seroma

    • E. 

      Perinephric abscess

    • F. 

      Hydro

  • 21. 
    This is a post operative complication, developing in the first 2 weeks, associated with an anastomotic leak.  It usually has a hypoechoic appearance and is a collection of urine around the kidney.  This is a peri-fluid renal collection known as ___________.
  • 22. 
    A ____________ is a predominantly ________ mass occurring 4-8 weeks post surgery. They may contain __________ and debris. When they get large, they may cause ___________ or allograft dysfunction. 
  • 23. 
    _____________ of a lymphocele may produce adequate treatment, however, they frequently ________.
  • 24. 
    The sonographic appearance of a hematoma varies with the ______ of the bleed.
  • 25. 
    This is a less common fluid collection, that usually arises soon after surgery or biopsy; can be capsular or extracapsular.  This is known as a ___________.
  • 26. 
    With a renal transplant, the renal artery and vein are attached to the _________  __________ artery and ______.
  • 27. 
    A renal transplant is located in the _______, superficially along the _________ margin.  It is usually on the _______ , (right or left) and is _________ to the psoas muscle and iliac veins.
  • 28. 
    Indications for a renal transplant ultrasound:
    • A. 

      Baseline exam 24-72 hours afterwards to evaluate size, axis, & flow

    • B. 

      Rule out hydro, transplant rejectionm or fluid surrounding kidney

    • C. 

      Doppler evaluation to rule out rejection

    • D. 

      Doppler of renal vein to rule out kink or obstruction

  • 29. 
    Complications of renal transplant:
    • A. 

      ACN

    • B. 

      ATN

    • C. 

      Hydro

    • D. 

      Renal artery stenosis or occlusion

    • E. 

      Thrombosis in renal vein

    • F. 

      Infection

    • G. 

      Renal infarct

  • 30. 
    This is the most common cause of acute post-trauma renla failure, is a result of ischemia; increased serum creatinine and decreased urine output.  This is known as _______. (abbreviation only)
  • 31. 
    With a renal transplant, what is the most lokely place to get a stenosis?
  • 32. 
    ________ rejections is the most common cause of renal failure after the 1st week
  • 33. 
    Sono findings of complete rejection:
    • A. 

      Increased cortical thickness

    • B. 

      Enlarged hypoechoic pyramids

    • C. 

      Decreased renal sinus echoes

    • D. 

      Indistinct CMJ

    • E. 

      Perirenal fluid

    • F. 

      Irregular sonolucent areas of cortex

    • G. 

      Enlarged kidney with distortion or renal outline

    • H. 

      Possible hydro

  • 34. 
    Clinically of complete rejection:
    • A. 

      Fever

    • B. 

      Polyuria

    • C. 

      Allograft tenderness

    • D. 

      Oliguria

  • 35. 
    Doppler findings with complete rejection:
    • A. 

      High resistance

    • B. 

      Decreased blood flow due to decreased renal function

    • C. 

      Decreased diastolic flow

    • D. 

      Increased capillary resistance due to external compression of vessels