# A3e551 Vol 3 CDC

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• 1.

### If you walk 100 meters four times, counting only your right foot, and find an average pacecount of 68, what is your stride?

• A.

1.4

• B.

1.47

• C.

2.94

• D.

3

B. 1.47
Explanation
If you walk 100 meters four times and count only your right foot, the total distance covered is 400 meters. The average pacecount is given as 68, which means that for every 68 steps taken, you have covered 400 meters. To find the stride, we divide the total distance (400 meters) by the number of steps (68), which gives us a stride length of approximately 5.88 meters. However, since we are asked to find the stride in meters per step, we need to divide the stride length by the number of steps taken in one meter. As we are counting only the right foot, the number of steps taken in one meter is 2. Therefore, the stride is approximately 5.88/2 = 2.94 meters per step, which corresponds to the option 2.94.

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• 2.

### When laying out a large area for a block of tents, what is the first thing to consider?

• A.

Make sure the baseline does not cross a restricted area.

• B.

Be familiar with the desired layout and the surrounding area.

• C.

Make sure to have at least three people helping with the taping process

• D.

Make sure the tent block is far enough away from the runway clear zone.

B. Be familiar with the desired layout and the surrounding area.
Explanation
When laying out a large area for a block of tents, it is crucial to be familiar with the desired layout and the surrounding area. This is important because having a clear understanding of the desired layout will ensure that the tents are arranged in the most efficient and organized manner. Additionally, being familiar with the surrounding area will help in identifying any potential obstacles or hazards that may affect the placement of the tents. By being knowledgeable about the layout and the surroundings, one can ensure that the tent block is set up in the most suitable location.

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• 3.

### The best targets to use for accurate measurement with a laser range finder should have ashiny finish

• A.

Be brightly colored, be perpendicular, and well lit.

• B.

Be well lit, be brightly colored, and be parallel.

• C.

Be brightly colored, be parallel, and well lit.

• D.

Be perpendicular, be brightly colored.

A. Be brightly colored, be perpendicular, and well lit.
Explanation
The best targets to use for accurate measurement with a laser range finder should have a shiny finish, be brightly colored, be perpendicular, and well lit. A shiny finish helps to reflect the laser beam more effectively, ensuring accurate measurement. Brightly colored targets are easier to spot and distinguish from the background, improving accuracy. Being perpendicular to the laser range finder helps to minimize errors caused by angles. Lastly, a well-lit target ensures that the laser range finder can easily detect and measure the distance accurately.

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• 4.

### When using the laser range finder how many shots does it prompt you to take in order to getthe height measurement of an object?

• A.

1

• B.

2

• C.

3

• D.

4

C. 3
Explanation
The laser range finder prompts you to take three shots in order to get the height measurement of an object. This is because multiple shots are necessary to ensure accuracy and to account for any errors or variations in the measurements. By taking three shots, the range finder can calculate the average height measurement and provide a more reliable result.

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• 5.

### The four component systems that make up a total station are the

• A.

Tribrach, the electronic distance measurement (EDM) system, the electronic angle measurement system, and the microprocessor.

• B.

Telescope, the EDM, the electronic angle measurement system, and the microprocessor.

• C.

Tribrach, the EDM, the electronic angle measurement system, and the faceplate.

• D.

Tribrach, the EDM, the vertical circle system, and the microprocessor.

A. Tribrach, the electronic distance measurement (EDM) system, the electronic angle measurement system, and the microprocessor.
Explanation
The correct answer is tribrach, the electronic distance measurement (EDM) system, the electronic angle measurement system, and the microprocessor. A total station is a surveying instrument used to measure angles and distances. The tribrach is the component that holds the total station steady and allows for precise measurements. The EDM system is responsible for measuring distances using laser or infrared technology. The electronic angle measurement system measures horizontal and vertical angles. Lastly, the microprocessor processes and stores the data collected by the total station.

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• 6.

### What part of the tribrach provides a line-of-sight that is directed downward, collinear withthe vertical axis of the instrument?

• A.

Telescope.

• B.

Vertical circle.

• C.

Optical plummet.

• D.

Dual-axis compensator.

C. Optical plummet.
Explanation
The optical plummet is a part of the tribrach that provides a line-of-sight that is directed downward, collinear with the vertical axis of the instrument. It is used for precise leveling and alignment purposes in surveying and construction. The optical plummet consists of a lens system that allows the user to visually align the instrument with a target point below, ensuring accurate vertical measurements. The other options, such as the telescope, vertical circle, and dual-axis compensator, do not specifically provide a downward line-of-sight collinear with the vertical axis.

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• 7.

### The automatic compensator in the total station aligns the vertical circle so that

• A.

270o is oriented precisely upward in the opposite the direction of gravity.

• B.

90o is oriented precisely upward in the opposite the direction of gravity

• C.

90o is oriented precisely upward toward the zenith

• D.

0o is oriented precisely upward toward the zenith

D. 0o is oriented precisely upward toward the zenith
Explanation
The automatic compensator in the total station aligns the vertical circle so that 0o is oriented precisely upward toward the zenith. This means that the vertical circle is adjusted to ensure that the 0o mark is pointing directly upwards towards the zenith, which is the point directly overhead. This alignment is important for accurate measurements and calculations in surveying and other applications where the vertical angle needs to be determined.

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• 8.

### What total station component allows data transfer to a computer workstation?

• A.

Faceplate.

• B.

Microprocessor

• C.

Wireless modem

• D.

Communication port

D. Communication port
Explanation
The communication port is the total station component that allows data transfer to a computer workstation. This port acts as a connection point between the total station and the computer, enabling the transfer of data such as measurements, coordinates, and other surveying information. It provides a means of communication between the two devices, allowing for efficient data exchange and analysis.

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• 9.

### After attaching a tribrach to a tripod, the first thing you verify is that the tribrach’s

• A.

Bottom plate is centered.

• B.

Optical plummet is centered

• C.

• D.

Explanation
The correct answer is "adjustment posts are centered". After attaching a tribrach to a tripod, the first thing you verify is that the adjustment posts are centered. This is important because the adjustment posts are used to level the tribrach and ensure its stability. If the adjustment posts are not centered, it can lead to an unstable setup and inaccurate measurements. By ensuring that the adjustment posts are centered, you can ensure the accuracy and reliability of the tribrach and the measurements taken with it.

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• 10.

### Which statement about total station care and maintenance is not correct?

• A.

Do not carry the instrument while it is mounted to the tripod.

• B.

Keep lenses and reflectors clean using lens paper or optic cloth

• C.

Carry the instrument by the telescope when not mounted to the tripod

• D.

Do not rotate the instrument by the handle when it is equipped with servo controls

C. Carry the instrument by the telescope when not mounted to the tripod
• 11.

### What organization tracks on-base equipment requiring high precision and adjustment?

• A.

Precision Measurement Equipment Commission (PMEC).

• B.

Precision Measurement Equipment Laboratory (PMEL)

• C.

Precision Measurement Equipment Authority (PMEA)

• D.

Precision Measurement Equipment Liaison (PMEL)

B. Precision Measurement Equipment Laboratory (PMEL)
Explanation
The Precision Measurement Equipment Laboratory (PMEL) is the organization responsible for tracking on-base equipment that requires high precision and adjustment. PMEL ensures that the equipment is calibrated and maintained to meet the required standards. They play a crucial role in maintaining the accuracy and reliability of measurement equipment used in various fields, such as aerospace, electronics, and telecommunications.

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• 12.

### What are the three significant stations needed to turn an angle with a total station?

• A.

Rear station, current station, forward station.

• B.

Rear station, occupied station, forward station.

• C.

Back sight station, current station, fore sight station

• D.

Back sight station, occupied station, fore sight station.

B. Rear station, occupied station, forward station.
Explanation
The correct answer is "Rear station, occupied station, forward station." In surveying, a total station is used to measure angles and distances. When turning an angle, the rear station is the starting point, the occupied station is the point where the total station is set up and measurements are taken, and the forward station is the ending point. This sequence allows for accurate measurements and calculations of angles.

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• 13.

### What is the best reason why it is considered professional practice to maintain a surveynotebook even though the survey controller collects survey data?

• A.

Batteries can die and there should be a backup.

• B.

Survey notes in some circumstances can become legal documents

• C.

It can be confusing to keep track of all the numbers in a survey controller.

• D.

In case you lose track of where you left off on a survey from the previous day.

B. Survey notes in some circumstances can become legal documents
Explanation
Maintaining a survey notebook is considered professional practice because survey notes can become legal documents in certain situations. These notes may serve as evidence or documentation in legal proceedings, disputes, or land surveys. By keeping a detailed record of the survey process, including any observations, measurements, or other relevant information, professionals can ensure the accuracy and reliability of the data collected. This practice also helps to establish a clear chain of custody for the survey data and provides a backup in case the survey controller or its batteries fail.

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• 14.

### What type of error occurs when the optical axis of the total station is not exactlyperpendicular to the telescope axis?

• A.

Horizontal collimation error.

• B.

Height of standards error

• C.

• D.

Circle eccentricity

A. Horizontal collimation error.
Explanation
When the optical axis of the total station is not exactly perpendicular to the telescope axis, it results in a horizontal collimation error. This means that the horizontal line of sight is not accurately aligned with the horizontal axis of the instrument. As a result, measurements taken with the total station will have an error in the horizontal direction, affecting the accuracy of the surveying or measuring work being performed.

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• 15.

### What type of error is caused by direct sunlight

• A.

Heat reflection

• B.

Light ray refraction

• C.

Horizontal refraction

• D.

Differential temperature

D. Differential temperature
Explanation
Direct sunlight can cause a type of error known as differential temperature. This occurs when there is a significant difference in temperature between the exposed and shaded areas. The sunlight heats up one area more than the other, causing variations in temperature. These temperature differences can lead to errors in measurements or readings, especially in situations where precise temperature control is required.

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• 16.

### When referring to errors that affect angle observations phase is

• A.

Vertical refraction

• B.

Unequal illumination of a target

• C.

Horizontal bending of light rays

• D.

Differential temperatures in the instrument

B. Unequal illumination of a target
Explanation
Unequal illumination of a target can cause errors in angle observations. This refers to the situation where the target being observed is not uniformly illuminated, leading to variations in the brightness or intensity of the target. This can affect the accuracy of angle measurements as the observer may perceive different angles depending on the brightness of different parts of the target. Therefore, unequal illumination of a target is a potential source of error in angle observations.

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• 17.

### In surveying, what does the process of leveling involve?

• A.

Verifying the location of one point based on another

• B.

Verifying the elevation of one point based on another

• C.

Establishing the location of one point based on another

• D.

Establishing the elevation of one point based on another

B. Verifying the elevation of one point based on another
Explanation
The process of leveling in surveying involves verifying the elevation of one point based on another. This is done by measuring the height difference between two points using a leveling instrument such as a level or a total station. By comparing the elevations of different points, surveyors can create accurate topographic maps, determine the slope of the land, and ensure that construction projects are built on level ground.

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• 18.

### What does the auto level use to achieve automatic compensation?

• A.

Magnetic axis

• B.

Optical pendulum

• C.

Telescopic magnet

• D.

Dual axis compensator

B. Optical pendulum
Explanation
The auto level uses an optical pendulum to achieve automatic compensation. The optical pendulum is a mechanism that allows the level to automatically adjust and maintain a level position, even when the instrument is placed on uneven ground. It works by using a pendulum system that is sensitive to changes in the level position and automatically adjusts the line of sight to maintain a level view. This ensures accurate measurements and eliminates the need for manual adjustments.

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• 19.

### How can you verify that the auto level is level after adjusting the leveling screws?

• A.

Slowly rotate the level 360° to check for level

• B.

Slowly rotate the level 270° to check for level

• C.

Slowly rotate the level 90° to check for level

• D.

Rotate the level 90° to check for level.

A. Slowly rotate the level 360° to check for level
Explanation
To verify that the auto level is level after adjusting the leveling screws, one should slowly rotate the level 360°. This means turning the level in a complete circle to ensure that it is level from all angles. By doing this, any variations or deviations in the level's position can be detected and corrected. Rotating the level 360° provides a comprehensive check to ensure that the level is properly adjusted and accurately leveled.

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• 20.

### Which component of the autolevel helps align the cross hairs on a point?

• A.

A collimator

• B.

A tangent screw

• C.

A focusing knob

• D.

B. A tangent screw
Explanation
A tangent screw is a component of the autolevel that helps align the cross hairs on a point. The tangent screw allows for precise adjustments to be made to the horizontal position of the telescope, ensuring that the cross hairs are accurately aligned with the desired point. By turning the tangent screw, the operator can finely adjust the horizontal position of the telescope, allowing for precise leveling and alignment.

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• 21.

### The two most common types of laser level are

• A.

Single beam and visible line

• B.

Visible line and invisible line

• C.

Rotating beam and visible line

• D.

Single beam and rotating beam

D. Single beam and rotating beam
Explanation
The correct answer is single beam and rotating beam. This is because laser levels are typically categorized into two main types based on their beam projection. A single beam laser level emits a single laser beam that can be used for basic leveling tasks. On the other hand, a rotating beam laser level emits a rotating laser beam, which allows for more advanced leveling and alignment tasks over larger distances. Therefore, these two types, single beam and rotating beam, are the most common types of laser levels available.

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• 22.

### Which of the following uses a series of circles and spheres to locate a point?

• A.

Trilateration

• B.

Triangulation

• C.

Multilateration

• D.

Observer calculation

A. Trilateration
Explanation
Trilateration is a method that uses a series of circles or spheres to locate a point. It involves determining the intersection point of three or more circles/spheres, each with a known radius and centered at a known point. By measuring the distances from the unknown point to the known points, the location of the unknown point can be determined. This technique is commonly used in GPS systems to determine the position of a receiver based on the distances to multiple satellites.

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• 23.

### Which of the following is not a Global Positioning System (GPS) segment?

• A.

User

• B.

Space

• C.

Control

• D.

Satellite

D. Satellite
Explanation
The correct answer is "Satellite." The GPS system consists of three main segments: User, Space, and Control. The User segment includes the GPS receivers used by individuals or devices to receive signals from the satellites. The Space segment refers to the GPS satellites themselves, which transmit signals to the users. The Control segment consists of ground-based control stations that monitor and manage the satellites' positions and signals. Therefore, "Satellite" is not a segment of the GPS system, as it falls under the Space segment.

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• 24.

### What information is contained in an ephemeris file?

• A.

Radio signal frequencies and satellite position at a given time

• B.

Satellite position and precise time the data left the satellite

• C.

Precise time the data left the satellite and radio signals

• D.

Location data and specific radio signal frequencies

B. Satellite position and precise time the data left the satellite
Explanation
An ephemeris file contains information about the satellite's position in space and the precise time at which the data left the satellite. This information is crucial for accurately predicting and tracking the satellite's movement and determining its position at any given time. It does not include information about radio signal frequencies or location data.

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• 25.

### What system on the earth’s surface ensures users receive accurate satellite information?

• A.

User

• B.

Space

• C.

Control

• D.

Satellite

C. Control
Explanation
The control system on the earth's surface ensures that users receive accurate satellite information. This system is responsible for managing and monitoring the satellites, adjusting their positions, and maintaining their accuracy. Without this control system, the satellite information received by users may be unreliable and inconsistent.

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• 26.

### Which of these is not a specific satellite constellation?

• A.

GPS

• B.

GNSS

• C.

DORIS

• D.

GLONASS

B. GNSS
Explanation
GNSS stands for Global Navigation Satellite System, which is not a specific satellite constellation but rather a generic term that refers to a system that provides global positioning and navigation services using satellite signals. GPS, DORIS, and GLONASS, on the other hand, are specific satellite constellations that provide navigation services.

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• 27.

### Which of these is a reinvigorated Russian satellite constellation?

• A.

GPS

• B.

GNSS

• C.

DORIS

• D.

GLONASS

D. GLONASS
Explanation
GLONASS is a reinvigorated Russian satellite constellation. GLONASS stands for Global Navigation Satellite System and is Russia's equivalent to the GPS system. It consists of multiple satellites that provide global positioning and navigation services. The reinvigoration refers to the modernization and expansion of the GLONASS system, which was initially developed during the Soviet era but has been upgraded and improved in recent years.

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• 28.

### Which part of a Global Positioning System (GPS) survey system synchronizes satelliteposition data?

• A.

Base

• B.

Rover

• C.

• D.

Antenna

Explanation
The receiver is the part of a GPS survey system that synchronizes satellite position data. It is responsible for receiving signals from multiple satellites and calculating the precise location based on the time it takes for the signals to reach the receiver. By synchronizing the data from the satellites, the receiver can accurately determine the user's position. The base, rover, and antenna are all important components of a GPS survey system, but they do not directly synchronize satellite position data.

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• 29.

### In a Global Positioning System (GPS) survey system, which component receives andcorrects input from the mobile receivers?

• A.

Base

• B.

Rover

• C.

Antenna

• D.

Controller

A. Base
Explanation
In a Global Positioning System (GPS) survey system, the base component receives and corrects input from the mobile receivers. The base acts as a reference station, collecting data from the mobile receivers and providing accurate positioning information by correcting any errors or discrepancies in the data received from the mobile receivers. This allows for more precise and reliable GPS measurements and surveying.

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• 30.

### In a Global Positioning System (GPS) survey system, which component receives andtranslates ephemeris data into meaningful text and graphics?

• A.

Base

• B.

Rover

• C.

Antenna

• D.

Controller

D. Controller
Explanation
The controller in a Global Positioning System (GPS) survey system receives and translates ephemeris data into meaningful text and graphics. This component is responsible for processing the data received from the satellites and converting it into a format that can be easily understood and displayed by the user. The controller plays a crucial role in providing accurate and real-time positioning information to the user.

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• 31.

### What radio frequencies do Global Positioning System (GPS) base stations use tocommunicate with rovers?

• A.

EHF or MF

• B.

UHF or VHF

• C.

VHF or EHF

• D.

VLF or UHF

B. UHF or VHF
Explanation
GPS base stations use UHF or VHF radio frequencies to communicate with rovers. UHF (Ultra High Frequency) and VHF (Very High Frequency) are commonly used for GPS communication due to their ability to transmit signals over long distances and penetrate obstacles such as buildings and trees. These frequencies provide reliable and accurate communication between the base stations and rovers, allowing for precise positioning and navigation.

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• 32.

### Post-Process Kinematic Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys are accomplished when

• A.

• B.

Data is gathered by the rover and post processed later against the base

• C.

Data is gathered by the base and post processed later against the rover

• D.

Ephemeris files travel directly to the rover through a base/rover radio link

B. Data is gathered by the rover and post processed later against the base
Explanation
In a Post-Process Kinematic Global Positioning System (GPS) survey, the correct answer states that data is gathered by the rover and post processed later against the base. This means that the rover collects raw GPS data during the survey, and this data is then processed later using specialized software to determine the accurate position of the rover relative to the base station. This method allows for more precise positioning information as it takes into account any errors or discrepancies that may have occurred during the survey.

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• 33.

### What on-base organization authorizes real-time kinematic (RTK) radio signal use?

• A.

• B.

Base Civil Engineer

• C.

Engineering Flight

• D.

Base safety office

Explanation
The correct answer is Communications squadron. The Communications squadron is responsible for authorizing the use of real-time kinematic (RTK) radio signals. This squadron handles communication systems and ensures that all authorized personnel have access to the necessary equipment and frequencies for RTK radio signal use. They play a vital role in maintaining effective communication within the organization and ensuring the proper functioning of RTK systems.

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• 34.

### Which element of a Global Positioning System (GPS) antenna is sensitive to energytransmitted from satellites?

• A.

Geodetic

• B.

GNSS

• C.

• D.

GPS

B. GNSS
Explanation
The correct answer is GNSS. GNSS stands for Global Navigation Satellite System, which is a generic term used to describe a system that uses satellite signals to determine the position of a receiver on Earth. The antenna of a GPS system is designed to receive and process the energy transmitted from satellites, allowing the receiver to calculate its precise location. Therefore, the GNSS element of a GPS antenna is sensitive to the energy transmitted from satellites.

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• 35.

### Which type of Global Positioning System (GPS) antenna typically has a larger diameter andlower profile?

• A.

Geodetic

• B.

GNSS

• C.

• D.

GPS

A. Geodetic
Explanation
Geodetic GPS antennas typically have a larger diameter and lower profile compared to other types of GPS antennas. This is because geodetic antennas are designed for high-precision positioning and surveying applications, where accuracy and stability are crucial. The larger diameter allows for better reception of satellite signals, while the lower profile helps minimize multipath interference and signal blockage. In contrast, GNSS, Radio, and GPS antennas may have different designs and dimensions depending on their intended use and performance requirements.

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• 36.

### Which of these is not a type of Global Positioning System (GPS) survey system antenna?

• A.

• B.

Cell phone antenna

• C.

Geodetic antenna

• D.

B. Cell phone antenna
Explanation
A cell phone antenna is not a type of Global Positioning System (GPS) survey system antenna. GPS survey system antennas are specifically designed to receive signals from GPS satellites and accurately determine the user's position. Cell phone antennas, on the other hand, are designed to receive and transmit signals for cellular communication. While cell phones may have GPS capabilities, the antenna used for GPS functionality is separate from the cell phone antenna.

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• 37.

### Which of the following Global Positioning System (GPS) restrictions reduced accuracy ofGPS data until the year 2000?

• A.

Multipath

• B.

Atmospheric effects

• C.

Selective availability

• D.

Poor satellite geometry

C. Selective availability
Explanation
Selective availability refers to a deliberate degradation of the GPS signal by the US government, which was implemented to prevent the accurate use of GPS data by unauthorized users. This restriction was in place until the year 2000, during which the accuracy of GPS data was intentionally reduced. This means that the GPS signals received by users were intentionally distorted, resulting in less accurate positioning information.

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• 38.

### Which of the following Global Positioning System (GPS) errors causes satellite geometrydistances to appear increased?

• A.

Multipath

• B.

Atmospheric effects

• C.

Selective availability

• D.

Poor satellite geometry

A. Multipath
Explanation
Multipath is the correct answer because it refers to the phenomenon where GPS signals bounce off surfaces such as buildings, trees, or mountains before reaching the receiver. This causes the receiver to receive multiple signals, resulting in interference and inaccuracies in calculating distances. As a result, the distances between satellites and the receiver appear increased, leading to errors in GPS positioning.

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• 39.

### Which of the following Global Positioning System (GPS) errors is produced in theionosphere and troposphere?

• A.

Multipath

• B.

Atmospheric effects

• C.

Selective availability

• D.

Poor satellite geometry

B. Atmospheric effects
Explanation
Atmospheric effects refer to the errors in the Global Positioning System (GPS) caused by the ionosphere and troposphere. These errors can result in signal delays and distortions as the GPS signals pass through the Earth's atmosphere. The ionosphere, a layer of charged particles in the upper atmosphere, can cause signal delays, while the troposphere, the lower layer of the atmosphere, can cause signal refraction and bending. These atmospheric effects can introduce inaccuracies in GPS measurements and affect the accuracy of positioning calculations.

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• 40.

### Which of the following Global Positioning System (GPS) errors produce a poor positiondilution of precision?

• A.

Multipath

• B.

Atmospheric effects

• C.

Selective availability

• D.

Poor satellite geometry

D. Poor satellite geometry
Explanation
Poor satellite geometry refers to the arrangement of GPS satellites in the sky, which can affect the accuracy of positioning. When the satellites are clustered together or located in a particular configuration, it can lead to a poor position dilution of precision (PDOP). This means that the GPS receiver is unable to accurately determine its position due to the limited number of satellites in view or their unfavorable distribution. As a result, the positional accuracy is compromised, leading to errors in the GPS measurements.

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• 41.

### Which grade of Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment uses dual frequency receiversto limit the effects of ionospheric delay?

• A.

• B.

• C.

• D.

Explanation
Survey grade GPS equipment uses dual frequency receivers to limit the effects of ionospheric delay. Dual frequency receivers are able to receive signals from two different frequencies, which allows them to measure the delay caused by the ionosphere and correct for it. This helps to improve the accuracy of the GPS measurements, making survey grade GPS equipment more precise and reliable compared to other grades of GPS equipment.

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• 42.

### When post processing using the incorrect antenna phase center offset how much error canbe introduced?

• A.

5 cm

• B.

8 cm

• C.

10 cm

• D.

13 cm

C. 10 cm
Explanation
When post processing using the incorrect antenna phase center offset, an error of 10 cm can be introduced. This means that the calculated positions or measurements may be off by 10 cm due to the incorrect offset value being used. It is important to use the correct antenna phase center offset to ensure accurate results in post processing.

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• 43.

### Which factor decreases with increased distance between the rover and base station?

• A.

The angular accuracy of the surveyed points

• B.

The vertical accuracy of the surveyed points

• C.

The positional accuracy of the surveyed points

• D.

The horizontal accuracy of the surveyed points

B. The vertical accuracy of the surveyed points
Explanation
As the distance between the rover and the base station increases, the vertical accuracy of the surveyed points decreases. This is because the accuracy of the measurements is affected by factors such as atmospheric conditions, signal strength, and potential obstructions. The longer the distance, the more these factors can introduce errors and reduce the accuracy of the vertical measurements. Therefore, the vertical accuracy decreases with increased distance between the rover and the base station.

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• 44.

### In relation to the Global Positioning System (GPS), Coordinate Geometry (COGO)software is a problem-oriented system that enables the user to

• A.

Calculate azimuths

• B.

Determine inverse elevations

• C.

Determine unknown locations

• D.

Solve common surveying problems

D. Solve common surveying problems
Explanation
Coordinate Geometry (COGO) software is designed to assist users in solving common surveying problems related to the Global Positioning System (GPS). It allows users to calculate azimuths, which are angles measured in a clockwise direction from a reference point to a specific location. It also helps determine inverse elevations, which involve measuring the height or depth of a point relative to a reference point. Additionally, COGO software enables users to determine unknown locations by utilizing geometric calculations based on known points. Overall, COGO software is a problem-oriented system that aids in solving various surveying problems efficiently.

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• 45.

### Given an interval ratio of 1:200 and stadia measurements of 4.86 and 3.65, what is thedistance between the rod and instrument?

• A.

443.4 feet

• B.

266.3 feet

• C.

242 feet

• D.

138.6 feet

C. 242 feet
Explanation
The interval ratio of 1:200 means that for every 1 unit of stadia measurement, the actual distance is 200 units. In this case, the stadia measurements given are 4.86 and 3.65. To find the actual distance between the rod and instrument, we can use the formula: actual distance = stadia measurement x interval ratio. Plugging in the values, we get: actual distance = 4.86 x 200 = 972 feet and actual distance = 3.65 x 200 = 730 feet. Since the question asks for the distance between the rod and instrument, we take the difference between these two values, which is 972 - 730 = 242 feet.

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• 46.

### Given an interval ratio of 1:333 and stadia measurements of 5.15 and 6.02, what is thedistance between the rod and instrument?

• A.

87 feet

• B.

261 feet

• C.

289.71 feet

• D.

3719.61 feet

C. 289.71 feet
Explanation
The interval ratio of 1:333 means that for every 1 unit of stadia measurement, the actual distance is 333 units. Given the stadia measurements of 5.15 and 6.02, we can calculate the actual distance by multiplying each measurement by 333. Therefore, the distance between the rod and instrument is (5.15 * 333) + (6.02 * 333) = 289.71 feet.

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• 47.

### Which azimuth system is used to establish horizontal control?

• A.

Grid azimuth

• B.

Back azimuth

• C.

Magnetic azimuth

• D.

Astronomical azimuth

A. Grid azimuth
Explanation
Grid azimuth is used to establish horizontal control. This system utilizes a grid coordinate system, such as the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) or the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS), to establish a reference grid on the Earth's surface. Grid azimuths are measured in relation to this grid and are used for navigation, surveying, and mapping purposes. This system allows for accurate and precise horizontal control measurements over large areas, making it suitable for establishing and maintaining geodetic networks.

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• 48.

### The difference between magnetic and true north is called

• A.

Separation

• B.

Declination

• C.

East declination

• D.

West declination

B. Declination
Explanation
Declination refers to the difference between magnetic north and true north. It is the angle between the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of true north. This difference is caused by the movement of the Earth's magnetic poles and can vary depending on the geographical location. By understanding the declination, navigators can adjust their compass readings to accurately navigate using a magnetic compass.

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• 49.

### Turning 36°31’ from azimuth 338°45’ creates what azimuth?

• A.

15°16’

• B.

105°16’

• C.

195°16’

• D.

302°14’

A. 15°16’
Explanation
When you turn 36°31' from azimuth 338°45', you are essentially adding the two angles together. By doing this, you get the sum of 375°16'. However, since azimuth angles are measured in a circle of 360°, you need to subtract 360° from the sum to get the equivalent angle within the range. Therefore, the resulting azimuth is 15°16'.

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• 50.

### What is the azimuth of bearing N93°51’16.32”W?

• A.

93°51’16.32”

• B.

193°51’16.32”

• C.

266°08’43.68”

• D.

273°51’16.32”