Test--thinking And Language

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Critical Thinking Quizzes & Trivia

When it comes to learning a new language, there are some things that you need to ensure you have on the tip of your hands. Are you just getting to learn more about the English language but have been having a hard time when it comes to some components? The quiz below will test you on thinking and language. Give it a try and get to learn some more.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The beginning of babies' receptive language development is best illustrated by their capacity to
    • A. 

      Recognize the distinctive sound of their own voice.

    • B. 

      Match another person's distinctive mouth movements with the appropriate sounds.

    • C. 

      Babble only sounds that are part of the household language.

    • D. 

      Comprehend the meaning of languages they have never experienced.

    • E. 

      Speak in short, telegraphic sentences.

  • 2. 
    In the words “helped” and “called,” the “ed” ending is a(n)
    • A. 

      Prototype

    • B. 

      Morpheme

    • C. 

      Heuristic

    • D. 

      Algorithm

    • E. 

      Syntax

  • 3. 
    Because she believes that boys are naughtier than girls, Mrs. Zumpano, a second-grade teacher, watches boys more closely than she watches girls for any signs of misbehavior. Mrs. Zumpano's surveillance strategy best illustrates
    • A. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • B. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • C. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • D. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • E. 

      The framing effect.

  • 4. 
    On Monday, the meteorologist forecast a 20 percent chance of rain, so Sheryl took her umbrella to work. On Friday, he reported an 80 percent chance that it would not rain, so Sheryl left her umbrella at home. Sheryl's behavior illustrates the impact of
    • A. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • B. 

      The belief perseverance phenomenon.

    • C. 

      Overconfidence.

    • D. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • E. 

      The framing effect.

  • 5. 
    • A. 

      The belief perseverance phenomenon.

    • B. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • C. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • D. 

      Fixations.

    • E. 

      The availability heuristic.

  • 6. 
    When someone mentions hamburgers, Trisha immediately thinks of McDonald's. In this instance, McDonald's is a
    • A. 

      Mental set.

    • B. 

      Heuristic

    • C. 

      Prototype.

    • D. 

      Fixation.

    • E. 

      Phoneme.

  • 7. 
    If a stranger looks like someone who previously harmed or threatened us in some way, we may—without consciously recalling the earlier experience—react warily. This illustrates that our reactions to others may be influenced by
    • A. 

      Critical period

    • B. 

      Algorithms algorithms

    • C. 

      Intuition

    • D. 

      Fixation

    • E. 

      Framing

  • 8. 
    Intrinsic motivation is thought to be an important component of
    • A. 

      Insight

    • B. 

      Creativity

    • C. 

      The availability heuristic

    • D. 

      Functional fixedness

    • E. 

      Belief perseverance

  • 9. 
    Most people take less time to identify a cow as a mammal than a mouse as a mammal because a cow more closely resembles their mammal
    • A. 

      Prototype

    • B. 

      Hierarchy

    • C. 

      Heuristic

    • D. 

      Algorithm

    • E. 

      Confirmation bias

  • 10. 
    Despite overwhelming and highly publicized evidence that Senator McEwan was guilty of serious political corruption and misconduct, many who had supported her in past elections remained convinced of her political integrity. Their reaction best illustrates
    • A. 

      Functional fixedness

    • B. 

      The representative heuristic

    • C. 

      Belief perseverance

    • D. 

      The availability heuristic

    • E. 

      The framing effect

  • 11. 
    When we use the word “automobile” to refer to a category of transport vehicles, we are using this word as a(n)
    • A. 

      Mental set

    • B. 

      Heuristic

    • C. 

      Concept

    • D. 

      Algorithm

    • E. 

      Phoneme

  • 12. 
    Telegraphic speech is most closely associated with the ________ stage of language development.
    • A. 

      One-word

    • B. 

      Babbling

    • C. 

      Two-word

    • D. 

      Semantic

    • E. 

      Phonetic

  • 13. 
    How many phonemes are in the word “bats”?
    • A. 

      0

    • B. 

      1

    • C. 

      2

    • D. 

      3

    • E. 

      4

  • 14. 
    Those who learn sign language as teens never become as fluent as children exposed to sign language from birth. This best illustrates the importance of ________ for mastering language.
    • A. 

      Heuristics

    • B. 

      Telegraphic speech

    • C. 

      A critical period

    • D. 

      Reinforcement

    • E. 

      Syntax

  • 15. 
    Marlene forgot to bring a pillow on the camping trip, so she spent a very uncomfortable and restless night. Unfortunately, she never thought of using her down-filled jacket as a pillow. Marlene's oversight best illustrates
    • A. 

      Confirmation bias

    • B. 

      Belief perseverance

    • C. 

      Functional fixedness

    • D. 

      The availability heuristic

    • E. 

      Overconfidence

  • 16. 
    • A. 

      In Parviz' speech, consonant phonemes carry more information than do vowel phonemes.

    • B. 

      As an infant, Parviz lost the ability to produce sounds he never heard.

    • C. 

      The rules for English syntax and semantics differ from what Parviz learned as a child.

    • D. 

      Non-English languages are typically more telegraphic, affecting Parviz' current speech patterns.

    • E. 

      Parviz' language acquisition device did not “switch on,” so he could produce English phonemes correctly.

  • 17. 
    Daniel was asked to write down as many words as he could think of that contained the letter d. To complete this task Daniel would rely on
    • A. 

      Divergent thinking

    • B. 

      Framing

    • C. 

      Convergent thinking

    • D. 

      Belief perseverance

    • E. 

      The availability heuristic

  • 18. 
    Eva had difficulty recognizing that a sea horse was a fish because it did not closely resemble her fish
    • A. 

      Hierarchy

    • B. 

      Heuristic

    • C. 

      Algorithm

    • D. 

      Prototype

    • E. 

      Fixation

  • 19. 
    Which of the following best illustrates psychology's current understanding of the relationship between thinking and language?
    • A. 

      Language determines the way we think.

    • B. 

      Thought and language are unrelated.

    • C. 

      All thinking must be language-based.

    • D. 

      Cognition and language are processed in the occipital lobe.

    • E. 

      Thinking affects language, which then affects our thoughts.

  • 20. 
    Raul and Sophia were having a picnic when it started to rain. They did not think of using their big plastic tablecloth as a temporary rain shelter and so were drenched within minutes. Their oversight best illustrates
    • A. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • B. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • C. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • D. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • E. 

      Overconfidence.

  • 21. 
    Kevin did not know whether the locker room was located down the short hallway to his right or down the long hallway to his left. Crossing his fingers, he decided to try the short hallway. His problem strategy best illustrates
    • A. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • B. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • C. 

      Trial and error.

    • D. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • E. 

      The availability heuristic.

  • 22. 
    The system of rules in a language that enables us to understand and communicate with others is called
    • A. 

      An algorithm

    • B. 

      Telegraphic Speech

    • C. 

      Grammar

    • D. 

      A heuristic

    • E. 

      Morphemes

  • 23. 
    Mentally segmenting other's spoken sounds into individual words best illustrates a 7-month-old's capacity for
    • A. 

      Telegraphic speech

    • B. 

      Receptive language

    • C. 

      Functional fixedness

    • D. 

      Productive language

    • E. 

      Babbling

  • 24. 
    With which of the following statements will people typically agree most quickly?
    • A. 

      A penguin is a bird.

    • B. 

      A goose is a bird.

    • C. 

      A robin is a bird.

    • D. 

      An ostrich is a bird.

    • E. 

      A flamingo is a bird.

  • 25. 
    When her teacher mentioned the arms race, Krista understood that the word “arms” referred to weapons and not to body parts. Krista's correct interpretation best illustrates the importance of
    • A. 

      Semantics

    • B. 

      The representative heuristic

    • C. 

      Syntax

    • D. 

      Morphemes

    • E. 

      Prototype

  • 26. 
    In suggesting that our ancestral history has prepared us to fear snakes, psychologists are emphasizing that what we fear is influenced by
    • A. 

      Genetic factors

    • B. 

      Belief perseverance

    • C. 

      The availability heuristic

    • D. 

      Framing

    • E. 

      Environmental situations

  • 27. 
    Research participants were asked to identify a word that could be associated meaningfully with each of three other words. Solutions that occurred with sudden insight were accompanied by a burst of activity in the brain's ________ lobe.
    • A. 

      Right temporal

    • B. 

      Left parietal

    • C. 

      Right occipital

    • D. 

      Right parietal

    • E. 

      Right frontal

  • 28. 
    Professor Pegler's research efforts focus on how the use of heuristics influences the way people assess financial risks. Which specialty area does his research best represent?
    • A. 

      Developmental psychology

    • B. 

      Biological psychology

    • C. 

      Clinical psychology

    • D. 

      Cognitive psychology

    • E. 

      Personality psychology

  • 29. 
    The spontaneous utterance of a variety of sounds by infants is called
    • A. 

      Universal grammar

    • B. 

      Babbling

    • C. 

      Telegraphic speech

    • D. 

      Morpheme

    • E. 

      Syntax

  • 30. 
    The danger of using the representativeness heuristic is that it may lead us to
    • A. 

      Make judgments in a very inefficient, time-consuming fashion.

    • B. 

      Judge event likelihood solely on the basis of event memorability.

    • C. 

      Disregard probability information that is relevant to our judgments.

    • D. 

      Judge objects only in terms of their functional utility.

    • E. 

      Base decisions solely on mathematical algorithms.

  • 31. 
    Scotty worked to find the solution to a long-division problem. In solving the problem, Scotty would engage in
    • A. 

      Framing

    • B. 

      Divergent thinking

    • C. 

      Confirmation bias

    • D. 

      Convergent thinking

    • E. 

      Belief perseverence

  • 32. 
    Whorf's linguistic determinism hypothesis emphasizes that
    • A. 

      Infancy is a critical period for language development.

    • B. 

      All languages share a similar grammar.

    • C. 

      Our linguistic proficiencies influence our social status.

    • D. 

      Words shape the way people think.

    • E. 

      Morphemes and phonemes build grammar and language.

  • 33. 
    When asked to indicate whether San Diego or San Antonio has more inhabitants, more German university students answered correctly than did American university students. This best illustrated the adaptive value of a(n)
    • A. 

      Fixation

    • B. 

      Heuristic

    • C. 

      Algorithm

    • D. 

      Category hierarchy

    • E. 

      Mental set

  • 34. 
    People told that a chemical in the air is projected to kill 10 out of every 10 million people feel more frightened than if told the fatality risk is .000001. This best illustrates the importance of
    • A. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • B. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • C. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • D. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • E. 

      Framing.

  • 35. 
    After spending two hours trying to solve an engineering problem, Amira finally gave up. As she was trying to fall asleep that night, a solution to the problem popped into her head. Amira's experience best illustrates
    • A. 

      The belief perseverance phenomenon.

    • B. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • C. 

      Insight.

    • D. 

      A mental set.

    • E. 

      The framing effect.

  • 36. 
    Many people perceive carjackings as more serious threats to their lives than failing to use seatbelts because carjackings are so much more memorable. This best illustrates the importance of
    • A. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • B. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • C. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • D. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • E. 

      Functional fixedness.

  • 37. 
    English words are constructed from about ________ different phonemes.
    • A. 

      5

    • B. 

      6

    • C. 

      26

    • D. 

      40

    • E. 

      200

  • 38. 
    Jamilla systematically tried each successive key on her dad's key ring until she found the one that unlocked his office door. This best illustrates problem solving by means of
    • A. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • B. 

      An algorithm.

    • C. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • D. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • E. 

      Functional fixedness.

  • 39. 
    Injury to the left ________ lobe damages the convergent thinking required for successful performance on intelligence tests.
    • A. 

      Frontal

    • B. 

      Parietal

    • C. 

      Occipital

    • D. 

      Temporal

    • E. 

      Limbic

  • 40. 
    Students routinely underestimate how much time it will take them to complete assigned course projects. This best illustrates the impact of
    • A. 

      Framing

    • B. 

      Functional fixedness

    • C. 

      The availability heuristic

    • D. 

      The representativeness heuristic

    • E. 

      Overconfidence

  • 41. 
    Dean overestimates the proportion of family chores for which he takes sole responsibility because it's easier for him to recall what he has done than to recall what other family members have done. This best illustrates the impact of
    • A. 

      Overconfidence

    • B. 

      Functional fixedness

    • C. 

      The representativeness heuristic

    • D. 

      Confirmation bias

    • E. 

      The availability heuristic

  • 42. 
    • A. 

      Roger can't find his 1-cup measuring cup and fails to realize he could use a tea cup.

    • B. 

      Jeannette refuses to fly after seeing a news story about a recent plane crash.

    • C. 

      Brett believes he is an outstanding driver, although most people are average.

    • D. 

      A radio advertisement for a fast-food chain claims its hamburgers are made with 80 percent lean ground beef instead of saying 20 percent fat.

    • E. 

      Asked to write an opinion paper on capital punishment, MacKenzie primarily searches for evidence that supports her opposition to the practice.

  • 43. 
    Ashelle's car would not start. To find the problem she decided to go alphabetically through the repair checklist of all possible reasons the car will not start. Ashelle's strategy best demonstrates
    • A. 

      Insight

    • B. 

      A heuristic

    • C. 

      Confirmation bias

    • D. 

      An algorithm

    • E. 

      Functional fixedness

  • 44. 
    Whenever Arlo reminded himself that his musical skills could earn him fame and fortune, he became less creative in his musical performance. This best illustrates that creativity may be inhibited by
    • A. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • B. 

      Divergent thinking.

    • C. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • D. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • E. 

      Extrinsic motivation.

  • 45. 
    In one experiment, Wolfgang Köhler watched an ape suddenly solve a problem of reaching bananas hanging from the ceiling by stacking and climbing up a number of crates. Which of the following did Köhler conclude the ape used in problem solving?
    • A. 

      Heuristics

    • B. 

      Trial and error

    • C. 

      Algorithms

    • D. 

      Framing

    • E. 

      Insight

  • 46. 
    As he attempted to spell the word “receive,” Tim reminded himself “i before e except after c.” Tim's self-reminder best illustrates the use of
    • A. 

      Trial and error

    • B. 

      Inisght

    • C. 

      An algorithm

    • D. 

      A heuristic

    • E. 

      Prototypes

  • 47. 
    Some people are unable to arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles because they fail to consider a three-dimensional arrangement. This best illustrates the effects of ________ on problem solving.
    • A. 

      Fixation

    • B. 

      Heuristics

    • C. 

      Algorithms

    • D. 

      Framing

    • E. 

      Overconfidence

  • 48. 
    The tendency to conclude that a person who likes to read poetry is more likely to be a college professor of classics than a truck driver illustrates the use of
    • A. 

      The availability heuristic

    • B. 

      Confirmation bias

    • C. 

      The framing effect

    • D. 

      Belief perseverance

    • E. 

      The representativeness heuristic

  • 49. 
    A single, memorable case of welfare fraud has a greater impact on estimates of the frequency of welfare abuse than do statistics showing that this case is actually the exception to the rule. This illustrates that judgments are influenced by the
    • A. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • B. 

      Representativeness heuristic.

    • C. 

      Belief perseverance phenomenon.

    • D. 

      Framing effect.

    • E. 

      Availability heuristic.

  • 50. 
    How many morphemes are in the word “bats”?
    • A. 

      0

    • B. 

      1

    • C. 

      2

    • D. 

      3

    • E. 

      4