Geography Test 3

72 Questions

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Geography Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The wind blows over a desert pavement. Small amounts of sand are moved by this wind util they find shelter in certain types of sand dunes. This particular dune is greatly elongated in the same direction that the wind always blows. This long, skinny same direction that the wind always blows. The long, skinny dune is a ...
    • A. 

      Barchan

    • B. 

      Erg

    • C. 

      Longitudinal

    • D. 

      Loess Due

  • 2. 
    You dig a hole in Alabama. It has a thin topsoil, but a very thick layer "B" horizon. Additionally, the soil is very red, very acidic and has low native fertility.  This is...
    • A. 

      Ultisol

    • B. 

      A Spodosol

    • C. 

      A Mollisol

    • D. 

      An Inceptisol

  • 3. 
    Barachan Dunes
    • A. 

      Are long and skinny, and must have constant wind direction

    • B. 

      Have a gentle face pointing upwind, and a steep slip -face pointing downwind

    • C. 

      Have a steep slip-face pointing upwind, and a gentle face pointing downwind

    • D. 

      Are formed where unlimited quantities of and are present

  • 4. 
    You dig a hole in the ground. One of the horizons is remarkably white. This is...
    • A. 

      An E horizon, and is produced by lots of eluviation

    • B. 

      An E horizon, and is produced by lots of illuviation

    • C. 

      A B horizon , and is produced by lots of eluviation

    • D. 

      A B horizon, and is produced by lots of illuviation

  • 5. 
    Bandlands form from..
    • A. 

      By the widespread, rapid erosion of hard rocks

    • B. 

      By the localized erosion of hard rocks

    • C. 

      By the widespread, rapid erosion of soft rocks

    • D. 

      By the localized erosion produced by exotic streams

  • 6. 
    Soil structure is best described as..
    • A. 

      A layer of soil with distinctive chemical properties

    • B. 

      A layer of soil with distinctive physical properties

    • C. 

      All the horizons in a soil, in a vertical section

    • D. 

      The tendency for soil particles to clump together to form peds

  • 7. 
    The wind blows on a loess plain. The result at this location will eventually be a...
    • A. 

      A deflation basin

    • B. 

      Desert pavement

    • C. 

      Bajada

    • D. 

      Playa

  • 8. 
    You are in the desert.  You enter a canyon that is only a few feet wide but a hundred feet tall, This is called...
    • A. 

      An arroyo, and is formed in hard rock

    • B. 

      An arroyo, and is formed in soft rock

    • C. 

      A slot canyon, and is formed in hard rock

    • D. 

      A slot canyon, and is formed in soft rock

  • 9. 
    The "A" horizon of a mollisol is
    • A. 

      Thin and weak, because the grassland vegetation adds very little organic matter

    • B. 

      Dark and thick because it is composed almost entirely of organic matter

    • C. 

      Thin and weak, because dry conditions and high temperatures destroy organics

    • D. 

      Dark and thick, because it is stained with around 5% organic matter

  • 10. 
    The "horizon of illuviation" is the ...
    • A. 

      "A"

    • B. 

      "C"

    • C. 

      "B"

    • D. 

      "E"

  • 11. 
    Soil "A" develops in climate with an average temperature of 42 Celcius.  Soil "B" develops ina climate with an average temperature of 2 degrees Celcius. How much faster will soil "A" develop?
    • A. 

      4 Times

    • B. 

      8 Times

    • C. 

      16 Times

    • D. 

      40 Times

  • 12. 
    Illuviation refers to...
    • A. 

      The accumulation of organic matter

    • B. 

      The removal of small particles of a horizon

    • C. 

      The movement of material in solution

    • D. 

      The movement of small particles into a horizon

  • 13. 
    Inselbergs form when...
    • A. 

      Alluvial fans merge together

    • B. 

      Desert valleys fill with sediments, almost burying the surrounding mountains

    • C. 

      Ephemeral streams drop in velocity, and deposit sediments

    • D. 

      Ephemeral lakes evaporate, and leave mineral deposits behind

  • 14. 
    A zone of the soil that consists of unweathered geological material is the...
    • A. 

      "C"

    • B. 

      "R"

    • C. 

      "A"

    • D. 

      "B"

  • 15. 
    You are building a house.  You notice that the soil is very gray .  You decide not to build a house with a basement because...
    • A. 

      Gray soils contain a lot of organics, which would cause the foundation to crack

    • B. 

      The soils contain a lot of clay, which would collapse the foundation

    • C. 

      These soils apparently are wet most of the time

    • D. 

      Gray soils indicate the area is a geomorphically active setting

  • 16. 
    You want to build a house. You decide that a geomophically active setting is not a good location. This would rule out
    • A. 

      Mollisols

    • B. 

      Entisols

    • C. 

      Inceptisols

    • D. 

      Ultisols

  • 17. 
    A broad ramp of sediment formed on the sides of valleys in the desert would be called..
    • A. 

      A bajada, which will grow in size until it becomes an alluvial fan

    • B. 

      An alluvial fan, and is caused by the evaporation of water

    • C. 

      A bajada, which is formed by merging alluvial fans

    • D. 

      An orroyo, which is formed by merging alluvial fans

  • 18. 
    You dig a hole. The soil has a thin, weak "A" horizon. Underneath is a thin, weak "B" horizon.  The soil is
    • A. 

      An Entisol, and has foremd ina very active geomorphic setting

    • B. 

      An Entisol, and has formed in a very stable geomorphic setting

    • C. 

      An Inceptisol

    • D. 

      A Histosol, and has formed in a very active geomorphic setting

  • 19. 
    The wind typically moves these materials in supsension
    • A. 

      Silt and clay

    • B. 

      Sand

    • C. 

      Gravels

    • D. 

      Silt and sand

  • 20. 
    Relative to the soil at the bottom of a valley, the soils on the surrounding hillsides will be...
    • A. 

      A drier, because more rain falls at high elevations

    • B. 

      Drier, because slopes tend to shed runoff

    • C. 

      Wetter, because more rain falls at lower elevations

    • D. 

      Wetter, because valleys tend to accumulate runoff

  • 21. 
    A naturally occurring aggregate of soil is called...
    • A. 

      Ped, and one produced by human activity is called a clod

    • B. 

      Ped, and one produced by human activity is called a horizon

    • C. 

      Horizon, and one produced human activity is called a clod

    • D. 

      Clod, and one produced by human activity is called a ped

  • 22. 
    In the desert, you see a "butte". This landform has..
    • A. 

      Hard rock o top of soft rock, and is equally tall and wide

    • B. 

      Hard rock of top soft rock, and is wider than it is tall

    • C. 

      Soft rock on top of hard rock, and is equally tall and wide

    • D. 

      Soft rock on top of hard rock, and is wider than it is tall

  • 23. 
    You dig a hole.  The soil has a very weak "A" horizon resting directly on the "C" horizon.  This soil is...
    • A. 

      An Inceptisol

    • B. 

      An Entisol

    • C. 

      A Mollisol

    • D. 

      A Histisol

  • 24. 
    An oasis may form if...
    • A. 

      A bajada erodes down to the watertable

    • B. 

      A deflation basin erodes down to the watertable

    • C. 

      An alluvial erodes down to the watertable

    • D. 

      The zone of aeroation is exposed

  • 25. 
    You dig a hole in a soil that has an organic matter content of about 5%.  This is an..
    • A. 

      "O" horizon and is very dark in color

    • B. 

      "A" horizon and is very red in color

    • C. 

      "O" horizon and is very red in color

    • D. 

      "A" horizon and is very dark in color

  • 26. 
    You would most likely find a Spodosol where the vegetation is dominated by...
    • A. 

      Grass, the rainfall is low and the soils are sandy

    • B. 

      Pine forest, the rainfall is high and the soils are sandy

    • C. 

      Pine forest, the rainfall is high and the soils are clayey

    • D. 

      Grass, the rainfall is high and the soils and sandy

  • 27. 
    Huge amounts of sand completely covering the surface may produce...
    • A. 

      Longitudinal dunes

    • B. 

      Ergs/ sand seas

    • C. 

      Barchan dunes

    • D. 

      Loess plains

  • 28. 
    Gravels are very seldom moved by the wind.  If they are, it is almost always by...
    • A. 

      Traction

    • B. 

      Suspension

    • C. 

      Saltation

    • D. 

      Bedload

  • 29. 
    A perennial stream that originates in a humid area, and flows through a desert is called...
    • A. 

      An intermittent stream

    • B. 

      A playa stream

    • C. 

      An arroyo

    • D. 

      An exotic stream

  • 30. 
    You dig a hole.  The soil is very black in color   This is an indication of ...
    • A. 

      Lots of iron

    • B. 

      Wetness

    • C. 

      A well trained soil

    • D. 

      Organic matter

  • 31. 
    You come across a landform in the desert that is very flat on top, very steep-sided, and is wider than it is tall.  The layer of rock on top is  much...
    • A. 

      Harder than that on the bottom, and his is a butte

    • B. 

      Softer than that on the bottom, and this , is a butte

    • C. 

      Harder than that on the bottom, and this is a mesa

    • D. 

      Softer than that on the bottom and this is a mesa

  • 32. 
    A soil profile is best described as...
    • A. 

      A layer of soil with distinctive chemical properties

    • B. 

      A layer of soil with distinctive physical properties

    • C. 

      All the horizons in a soil, in a vertical section

    • D. 

      All the layers in a soil, in a horizontal section

  • 33. 
    The wind blows on a mass of unsorted sediment containing all the different particle sizes, including gravel.  The result at this location will eventually be a ...
    • A. 

      Loess plain

    • B. 

      Desert pavement

    • C. 

      Bajada

    • D. 

      Deflation basin

  • 34. 
    You are taking a hike.  You come across a channel with a remarkably flat bottom and vertical sides.  This is...
    • A. 

      An arroyo, and you are hiking in a dry region

    • B. 

      An arroyo, and you are hiking in a wet region with lots of runoff

    • C. 

      A bajada, and you are hiking in a desert

    • D. 

      A bajada, and you are hiking near a coastline in a dry region

  • 35. 
    In terms of PH, low numbers indicate that a soil is ....
    • A. 

      Very acidc, unlike those here in Alabama

    • B. 

      Very basic, like those here in Alabama

    • C. 

      Very acidic, like those in Alabama

    • D. 

      Very basic, unlike those here in Alabama

  • 36. 
    A Soil is 100 years old.  It has a very thick, dark "A" horizon, a clayey "B", and a thick "C" horizon.  This soil is...
    • A. 

      An inceptisol

    • B. 

      An ultisol

    • C. 

      Very young

    • D. 

      Very old

  • 37. 
    Playas form in deserts when...
    • A. 

      Rivers entering valleys deposit their suspended load and bed load

    • B. 

      The last remnants of old mountains are almost buried in sediments

    • C. 

      Ephemeral lakes form in valleys

    • D. 

      Ephemeral lakes in valleys dry up, leaving their solution load behind

  • 38. 
    You dig a hole.  After moving through a thin, weak "A", you uncover a horizon that is amazingly white in color.  Underneath this horizon is a strong"B" horizon.  This is a...
    • A. 

      Spodosol

    • B. 

      Ultisol

    • C. 

      Mollisol

    • D. 

      Inceptisol

  • 39. 
    Humus is best described as...
    • A. 

      Clays and other small particles that have been added to a soil horizon

    • B. 

      Clays and other small particles that have been removed from a soil horizon

    • C. 

      Slightly decomposed organic matter

    • D. 

      Highly decomposed organic matter

  • 40. 
    The movement of atoms and small molecules in solution out of a soil profile is called....
    • A. 

      Eluviation

    • B. 

      Leaching

    • C. 

      Illuviation

    • D. 

      Reaction

  • 41. 
    On your way to Las Vegas, you drive by a beautiful blue lake in a desert valley.  The next week, as you hitchhike home, the lake is gone. All that is left is
    • A. 

      A playa

    • B. 

      A salt flat

    • C. 

      An arroyo

    • D. 

      A bajada

  • 42. 
    In a soil profile, the "R" layer represents...
    • A. 

      The zone of maximum illuviation

    • B. 

      The zone of maximum eluviation

    • C. 

      Weathered parent materials

    • D. 

      Rock

  • 43. 
    Saltation...
    • A. 

      Is a hopping motion, and is how most gravel moves in the wind

    • B. 

      Occurs when ephemeral lakes evaporate, and leave dissolved minerals behind

    • C. 

      Is a hopping motion, and is how most sand moves in the wind

    • D. 

      Occurs when water dissolves salts, and later deposits them in playas

  • 44. 
    Histosols are composed of
    • A. 

      A mineral material that has been stained by organics, and are found in cool, wet locations

    • B. 

      All organic material, and are found in hot wet locations where lots of plants grow

    • C. 

      Mineral material that has been stained by organics, and are found in hot wet locations

    • D. 

      All organic material, and are found in cool, wet locations

  • 45. 
    At this latitude, soils on the north-facing side of a slope will be
    • A. 

      Warmer and wetter

    • B. 

      Cooler and drier

    • C. 

      Warmer and drier

    • D. 

      Cooler and wetter

  • 46. 
    You come across a landform in the desert that is very flat on top, very steep-sided, and is much taller than it is wide.  The layer of rock on top is much..
    • A. 

      Harder than that on the bottom, and this is a hoodoo

    • B. 

      Softer than that on the bottom, and this a butte

    • C. 

      Harder than that on the bottom, and this is a mesa

    • D. 

      Softer than that on the bottom and this a mesa.

  • 47. 
    You are digging a hole in the ground. You encounter a layer that is composed of oak leaves. This layer would be the...
    • A. 

      "O" horizon, and is always found on the surface

    • B. 

      "A" horizon, and is always found on the surface

    • C. 

      "O" horizon, and is always found deep in the soil, where there is little decomposition

    • D. 

      "A" horizon, and is always found deep in the soil, where there is little decomposition

  • 48. 
    A flat landscape created by the wind-depositon of fine sediments over a huge area is called...
    • A. 

      A loess plain

    • B. 

      A bajada

    • C. 

      Deflation basin

    • D. 

      Desert pavement

  • 49. 
    The soils in the this region are often very red.  This indicates...
    • A. 

      That it rains a lot here, so that the soils are usually waterlogged

    • B. 

      That the soil is relatively well drained

    • C. 

      That the soil parent materials are relatively young and full of minerals

    • D. 

      That the soil parent material is strong eluviated

  • 50. 
    You are digging a hole.  The work is pretty easy to begin with, but then the soil becomes hard, sticky, red and clayey.  You are now digging in the ...
    • A. 

      "E" Zone of illuviation

    • B. 

      "E", the zone of eluviation

    • C. 

      "B" the zone of eluviation

    • D. 

      "B", the zone of illuviation

  • 51. 
    Winter is coming and the leaves are falling off of the trees. These slightly decomposed leaves would likely form...
    • A. 

      The "O" horizon

    • B. 

      The "B" horizon

    • C. 

      The "A" horizon

    • D. 

      These will not form soil, because they are organic

  • 52. 
    In most deserts, _________________ is generally the most important agent of geomorphic change
    • A. 

      Wind

    • B. 

      Water

    • C. 

      Evaporation

    • D. 

      Blowing sand

  • 53. 
    You grab a handful of dirt, and squeeze it into a hard ball of mud.  You have just created a
    • A. 

      Clod, and one produced by nature is called a ped

    • B. 

      Ped, and one produced by nature is called a horizon

    • C. 

      Horizon, and one produced by nature is called a clod

    • D. 

      Ped, and one produced by nature is called a clod

  • 54. 
    Playas form in deserts when...
    • A. 

      Rivers entering valleys deposit their suspended and bedloads

    • B. 

      The last remnants of old mountains are almost buried in sediments

    • C. 

      Ephemeral lakes form in valleys

    • D. 

      Ephemeral lakes in valleys dry, leaving their solution load behind

  • 55. 
    A zone of the soil that consists of soil parent material has not been changed by the other soil-forming factors is the
    • A. 

      "A"

    • B. 

      "C"

    • C. 

      "E"

    • D. 

      "B"

  • 56. 
    You dig a hole in a soil that is almost always saturated with water.  It is also very clayey and very low in organic matter.  This soil will most likely be
    • A. 

      Gray

    • B. 

      Black

    • C. 

      Red

    • D. 

      White

  • 57. 
    Spodosols will most likely develop in soil textures that are very
    • A. 

      Sandy, with high permeability and so weak eluviation

    • B. 

      Clayey, with high permeability and so strong eluviation

    • C. 

      Clayey, with low permeability and so weak eleuviation

    • D. 

      Sandy, with high permeability and so strong eluviation

  • 58. 
    Arroyos...
    • A. 

      Are ephemeral channels with flat bottoms and vertical sides.

    • B. 

      Originate in wet areas and flow through deserts on the way to the ocean

    • C. 

      Form in hard rock, and may be a hundred feet deep but only a few feet wide

    • D. 

      Where an ephemeral stream enters a flat valley and produces deposition

  • 59. 
    The movement of small particles of clay, carried by water, out of a horizon is called
    • A. 

      Illuviation

    • B. 

      Eluviation

    • C. 

      Leaching

    • D. 

      Reaction

  • 60. 
    Soils on the sides of hills are considered to be rainfall...
    • A. 

      Receiving sites, and will develop more rapidly

    • B. 

      Shedding sites, and will develop more slowly

    • C. 

      Receiving sites, and will develop more slowly

    • D. 

      Shedding sites, and will develop more rapidly

  • 61. 
    In the desert, you are walking on a desert pavement.  This was produced by
    • A. 

      The wind removing all the sand, silt and clay, leaving only solid rock behind

    • B. 

      Running water eroding way the soft rocks, and leaving just gravel behind

    • C. 

      The wind creating an "armored surface" of gravels, with smaller particles underneath

    • D. 

      The wind blowing on mixed sediments , that contain no gravels

  • 62. 
    You are a farmer. You have lived a good life, and when you die you go directly to farmer heaven. The soils here have rich, fertile "A" horizons that contain a high percentage of humus. These soils are
    • A. 

      Mollisols, and are associated with heavenly grasslands

    • B. 

      Mollisols, and are associated with heavenly forests, with lots of organic matter

    • C. 

      Ultisols, and are the Ultimate in soil development

    • D. 

      Ultisols, and are associated with lots of organic matter in heavenly grasslands

  • 63. 
    A loess plain forms from...
    • A. 

      The wind erosion of sediments that contain some gravels

    • B. 

      The wind erosion of sediments that do not contain gravels

    • C. 

      The smothering of a pre-existing landscape under growing bajadas

    • D. 

      The smothering of a pre-existing landscape under silts

  • 64. 
    You are digging a hole. You encounter a "B" horizon that contains lots of soluble minerals, like CaCO2 and salt.  This is...
    • A. 

      An Ultisol, and this is a very wet climate

    • B. 

      An aridisol, and this is a very wet climate

    • C. 

      An Entisol, and this is a very young soil so the minerals have not been removed yet

    • D. 

      An Aridiosol, and this is a very dry climate

  • 65. 
    Soil parent materials may be composed of
    • A. 

      Weathered rock only

    • B. 

      Weathered rock and or organic matter

    • C. 

      Organic matter only

    • D. 

      Unweathered rock only

  • 66. 
    You are vacationing in the desert.  Your group is attacked by giant carnivorous worms that move though loose sediments
    • A. 

      An inselberg

    • B. 

      A bajada

    • C. 

      An alluvial fan

    • D. 

      A delta

  • 67. 
    Soils will develop most quickly in a climate that is
    • A. 

      Wet and cold

    • B. 

      Wet and hot

    • C. 

      Dry and hot

    • D. 

      Dry and cold

  • 68. 
    Very large depressions, some reaching below sea level, may be formed in deserts when...
    • A. 

      The wind blows on sediments that contain no gravels

    • B. 

      Running water rapidly erodes soft rocks

    • C. 

      Running water erodes straight down through hard rocks

    • D. 

      The wind blows on mixed sediments and creates an armored surface

  • 69. 
    Chemical weathering is important in soils primarily because
    • A. 

      Sands, silts and clays are produced

    • B. 

      New minerals such as granite and basalt are produced

    • C. 

      Nutrient elements are released into the soils

    • D. 

      It will increase rates of chemical reaction

  • 70. 
    You dig a hole.  The soil has a very weakly defined surface layer.  The only other horizon is a thick "C" .  This soil is...
    • A. 

      An Inceptisol and this is a very dry climate

    • B. 

      An entisol, and this is a very dry climate

    • C. 

      An inceptisol , and this probably would not be a good place to build a house

    • D. 

      An Entisol, and this probably would not be a good place to build a house

  • 71. 
    Suspension typically moves...
    • A. 

      Sands , silts and c lays, but no gravels

    • B. 

      Only silts and clays

    • C. 

      Sands in a "hopping" motion

    • D. 

      Sands, and rarely gravels.

  • 72. 
    The wind blows on a loess plain.  The result at this location will eventually be a ...
    • A. 

      Deflation basin

    • B. 

      Desert pavement

    • C. 

      Bajada

    • D. 

      Playa