7.7.16 Fluids And Electrolytes

10 Questions

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which of the following statements is true concerning total body water (TBW)?
    • A. 

      TBW in men represents a higher percentage of body weight than it does in women

    • B. 

      TBW content increases with increasing age

    • C. 

      TBW is equally distributed within the intracellular and extracellular compartments

    • D. 

      In infants, TBW constitutes up to 40% of body weight

  • 2. 
    • A. 

      A thiazide diuretic

    • B. 

      Clear liquid diet for 2 days

    • C. 

      Electrolyte intake with bowel prep

    • D. 

      Electrolyte losses from colon carcinoma

    • E. 

      Water and electrolyte loss from bowel prep

  • 3. 
    Which of the following causes of metabolic acidosis is NOT associated with an increased anion gap
    • A. 

      Hypoaldosteronism

    • B. 

      Renal failure

    • C. 

      Lactic acidosis

    • D. 

      Salicylate poisoning

    • E. 

      Diabetic ketoacidosis

  • 4. 
    Metabolic alkalosis is most likely to occur following:
    • A. 

      Excessive ileostomy output

    • B. 

      Development of a duodenal fistula

    • C. 

      Distal renal tubular acidosis

    • D. 

      Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    • E. 

      Prolonged nasogastric suction

  • 5. 
    Which of the following statements is true concerning respiratory acidosis?
    • A. 

      Correction of hypoxemia among patients with chronic lung disease can worsen respiratory acidosis

    • B. 

      Renal compensation occurs within 24 hours

    • C. 

      Respiratory acidosis is associated with chronic pulmonary disease far more commonly than is hypoxemia

    • D. 

      The initial buffering effect occurs at the renal tubule level

  • 6. 
    A 50-year-old man in the intensive care unit has a serum potassium level of 8.1 mEq/L. The initial step in emergency treatment should be:
    • A. 

      Glucose and insulin

    • B. 

      Sodium bicarbonate

    • C. 

      5% dextrose in water

    • D. 

      10% calcium gluconate

    • E. 

      Kayexalate enema

  • 7. 
    Which of the following statements is true concerning abnormalities in serum level of sodium?
    • A. 

      Most surgical patients with hyponatremia are best treated with free water administration

    • B. 

      Hypernatremia should be rapidly corrected with free water administration

    • C. 

      The most common cause of hyponatremia is a deficit in total body sodium

    • D. 

      Hyponatremia can occur in situations of excessive solute

  • 8. 
    A 65-year-old man with an obstructing sigmoid cancer who weighs 80 kg has a serum potassium of 2.5 mEq/L. He has a history of hypertension and compensated congestive heart failure, and his medications include a thiazide diuretic and digitalis. An EKG shows depression of the ST segment, flattening of the T-waves, and prominent U-waves.Causes of hypokalemia include all of the following EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      Aldosteronism

    • B. 

      Insulin deficiency

    • C. 

      Alkalosis

    • D. 

      Mannitol administration

    • E. 

      Villous adenoma of the rectum

  • 9. 
    Which of the following statements is true concerning maintenance intravenous fluid therapy?
    • A. 

      A child requires less maintenance fluid per kilogram than does a larger person

    • B. 

      Normal short-term maintenance intravenous therapy requires administration of sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, and magnesium

    • C. 

      The total daily water requirement for a 70-kg man is approximately 2,500 mL/d

    • D. 

      Fluid volume calculations for elderly patients generally are higher than for young patients

  • 10. 
    Compared to the infusion of one liter of 5% dextrose in water, the infusion of the same volume of lactated Ringer's solution expands:
    • A. 

      The extracellular compartment more

    • B. 

      The intracellular compartment more

    • C. 

      Total body water less

    • D. 

      The intravascular compartment equally

    • E. 

      The interstitial compartment less