4. Pre-revolutionary Russia

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4. Pre-revolutionary Russia

1917 was the year the Russian revolution changed the course of world history. This time period saw the Russian empire overthrow the Tsarist Empire and rise to power. What details do you recall about the pre- revolutionary Russia? Take the simple quiz below and show how much of a history lover you are.


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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Tick the correct terminology:
    • A. 

      Tsar - King/Emperor of Russia

    • B. 

      Romanov - Name of last Russian dynasty. Family name of last Tsar and family

    • C. 

      Autocracy - Monarch has complete and total power

    • D. 

      Duma - Russian Parliament

    • E. 

      Constitution - The rules by which a country is governed

    • F. 

      Kulaks - Richer peasants who have larger and profitable farms

    • G. 

      Mir - Small rural village

    • H. 

      Serf - Feudal worker tied to their Lord's estate

    • I. 

      Orthodoxy - Sound or correct in opinion or doctrine, especially theological or religious doctrine

  • 2. 
    The Battle of Waterloo finally ended Napoleon Bonaparte's domination of Europe in ......
    • A. 

      1812

    • B. 

      1861

    • C. 

      1815

    • D. 

      1825

  • 3. 
    • A. 

      The Balaklavan War

    • B. 

      The War of the 4 Nations

    • C. 

      The Slavic War

    • D. 

      The Crimean War

  • 4. 
    As Western Europe modernised politically, socially and economically, Russia ...
    • A. 

      Joined in and became a modern European nation

    • B. 

      Drew closer to the west and adopted many European types of infrastructure

    • C. 

      Stagnated intellectually and economically

    • D. 

      Ignored it, hoping it would go away

  • 5. 
    Russian officers, fighting Napoleon, became influenced by Western thought and culture, causing them to question Russian society and destiny
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 6. 
    Because of the restrictions placed on political and social discussions, the Russian Novel became a viable avenue for spreading enlightenment ideals and political dissent. This time is regarded as the greatest time for Russian Literature.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 7. 
    Many Russian officers returning from Paris were angry at Russia's state of affairs and wanted a more liberal Tsar; thus moving Russia forward. This anger resulted in:
    • A. 

      The Officers' Revolt

    • B. 

      The Decembrist Revolt

    • C. 

      The Revolt of the Libertarians

    • D. 

      The Cult of Skaro

  • 8. 
    The Decembrist revolt:
    • A. 

      1825

    • B. 

      1818

    • C. 

      1812

    • D. 

      1861

  • 9. 
    Russian defeat in the Crimean War:
    • A. 

      Raised questions of the Russian military - incompetent!

    • B. 

      Educated classes questioned unbending autocratic rule (western influences)

    • C. 

      Reform needed across all parts of Russian social structure

    • D. 

      Economic, political, social, judicial, administrative reform required

    • E. 

      Military is working OK

    • F. 

      Emancipation of the serfs is first required step

  • 10. 
    Pre-revolutionary Tsarist Empire:
    • A. 

      Most authoritarian regime in Europe

    • B. 

      Rigid class distinction extreme but declining in 'west'

    • C. 

      Agricultural economy

    • D. 

      Underdeveloped industrial and economic activity

    • E. 

      Russia is still in the Middle Ages

    • F. 

      Liberal Church is starting to occur

    • G. 

      Intellectual Russia cut off from Europe

    • H. 

      Fear of French Revolution adds to political paranoia and suppression of liberal ideas

    • I. 

      Censorship and 'police state'

  • 11. 
    Pre-Revolutionary Russian social structure:
    • A. 

      Serfs: like slavery - 50 to 60 million

    • B. 

      Army: Huge! 25 years service and brutal

    • C. 

      Very little middle class

    • D. 

      Orthodox church strong voice of conservatism and supporting Tsarist regime

  • 12. 
    During the Napoleonic Wars and ending at the Decembrist revolt was:
    • A. 

      Alexander the Liberal

    • B. 

      Alexander the Great

    • C. 

      Alexander the not-so-great

    • D. 

      Alexander the Oppressor

  • 13. 
    This Tsar arrived at the throne with the Decembrist Revolt 1825 and died during the Crimean war. This caused him much distress, causing him to apply a regime of extreme oppression, censorship and a 'police state'
    • A. 

      Nicholas I

    • B. 

      Nicholas III

    • C. 

      Nicholas the Unpleasant

    • D. 

      Nicholas IV

  • 14. 
    The Tsar who instigated reforms due to the failures of the Crimean War was Alexander II (Alexander the Liberator)
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 15. 
    Alexander II liberated the serfs of Russia in 1861
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 16. 
    The liberation of the Russian serfs resulted in:
    • A. 

      Legal freedom but most moved into ownership with crushing debt

    • B. 

      Became powerless wage labour instead of powerless serfs

    • C. 

      Discontent and rioting

    • D. 

      A happy contented agricultural population

    • E. 

      Living standards did not improve

    • F. 

      Local governments: Zemstovs (rural) Dumas (towns)

    • G. 

      Local governments favoured nobility but were early step to representative government

    • H. 

      Less educational opportunities for all Russians

    • I. 

      Relaxed censorship

    • J. 

      Increased economic activity and development

    • K. 

      Peasants resented paying for land they believed was theirs by right

    • L. 

      Landlords kept the poorest land

    • M. 

      Repayment system greatly over-valued peasant land

  • 17. 
    The reforms instigated by Alexander II resulted in:
    • A. 

      A contented reformed Russia

    • B. 

      A strong agricultural and industrial Russia

    • C. 

      Little support. Russians want more reform. Alexander didn't go far enough

    • D. 

      Civil war

  • 18. 
    Alexander was assassinated in 1881 and the next tsar Alexander III returns to a policy of harsh oppression
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 19. 
    The Decembrist Revolt of 1825 saw the start of political agitation and the start of a variety of radical political groups who believed they held the answers to Russia's future.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 20. 
    Some of theses radical political groups were:
    • A. 

      Populists. Believed in socialism, the west was evil, and the rural peasants were central to change

    • B. 

      Nihilists. Destructive anarchists who believed terrorism would destroy the old system and be replaced with the new

    • C. 

      Socialists. Many different groups under this political umbrella

    • D. 

      Marx and Engels popular with intellectuals

    • E. 

      Judean People's Front

  • 21. 
    The major difference between the different socialist groups was:
    • A. 

      Marxist theory. Implementing German economics into Russia

    • B. 

      The mechanics of change. 'How' to get a better Russia. What to leave? What to destroy?

  • 22. 
    The oppression of the Russian people by Alexander III slowed down industrial development and activity
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 23. 
    The Industrial Revolution in Russia
    • A. 

      1880's saw the development of coal, iron, railways, small business

    • B. 

      Large scale capital investment came from Western Europe

    • C. 

      However, large scale industrial and commercial business/financiers have not developed

    • D. 

      State is the financier of the Russian Industrial Revolution. No capitalists which is a long-term problem

    • E. 

      Industrialisation = urban growth = squalid conditions = unhappy workers + unhappy rural peasants

    • F. 

      Russians allowed to study engineering, chemistry, politics, agriculture

  • 24. 
    The growth of Industrial Russia was greatly influenced by the Finance Minister 1892 - 1903 ......
    • A. 

      Count Fergus Watts

    • B. 

      Count De'Money

    • C. 

      Count Sergius Witte

  • 25. 
    Industrialisation caused further urban problems ......
    • A. 

      Working conditions were poor

    • B. 

      Low wages

    • C. 

      Irregular and insecure employment

    • D. 

      Long working days

    • E. 

      Inadequate rest breaks

    • F. 

      Unsafe equipment

    • G. 

      Threat of arbitrary fines for 'crimes' like uncleanliness, and singing

    • H. 

      Insufficient housing