1W0510 CDC Practice Test B Set Book 1

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1W0510 Quizzes & Trivia

1W0510 CDC Practice Test B Set Book 1


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is the most important of all the climatic elements?

    • A.

      Temperature

    • B.

      Winds

    • C.

      Moisture

    • D.

      Location

    Correct Answer
    A. Temperature
    Explanation
    Temperature is the most important climatic element because it directly affects various aspects of the environment and has a significant impact on living organisms. Temperature influences the rate of evaporation, precipitation, and the distribution of moisture in the atmosphere. It also determines the type of vegetation that can thrive in a particular region and affects the behavior and survival of animals. Additionally, temperature plays a crucial role in determining the climate zones and patterns across the globe.

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  • 2. 

    Evaporation is an important climatic element over which regions?

    • A.

      When considered in relation to weather phenomena forming over land

    • B.

      When considered in relation to weather phenomena forming over bodies of water.

    • C.

      When considered in relation to weather phenomena forming over cities

    • D.

      When considered in relation to weather phenomena forming over mountainous regions

    Correct Answer
    B. When considered in relation to weather phenomena forming over bodies of water.
    Explanation
    Evaporation is an important climatic element over bodies of water. When water bodies are exposed to sunlight and heat, the water molecules gain enough energy to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, forming water vapor. This process of evaporation plays a significant role in the formation of weather phenomena, such as clouds, precipitation, and humidity, over bodies of water. The evaporation of water from oceans, lakes, and rivers contributes to the moisture content in the atmosphere, which is crucial for the development of weather patterns and systems.

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  • 3. 

    Why is the average amount of precipitation not a good way to compare the climate of two stations?

    • A.

      Occurs in different intensities and times

    • B.

      Occurs in different forms

    • C.

      Occurs in different temperatures

    • D.

      It doesnt have any affect

    Correct Answer
    A. Occurs in different intensities and times
    Explanation
    The average amount of precipitation is not a good way to compare the climate of two stations because precipitation can occur in different intensities and at different times. For example, one station may have a higher average amount of precipitation, but it may only experience heavy rainfall for a short period of time, while another station may have a lower average amount of precipitation, but it may experience more consistent rainfall throughout the year. Therefore, comparing the average amount of precipitation alone does not provide a comprehensive understanding of the climate differences between the two stations.

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  • 4. 

    Which element of precipitation includes such deposits as dew, frost, and rime ice?

    • A.

      Condensation

    • B.

      Evaporation

    • C.

      Sublimation

    • D.

      Fusion

    Correct Answer
    A. Condensation
    Explanation
    Condensation is the correct answer because it refers to the process in which water vapor in the air cools and changes into liquid form, leading to the formation of dew, frost, and rime ice. This occurs when the air temperature drops below the dew point, causing the water vapor to condense onto surfaces such as grass, leaves, or windows. Evaporation is the opposite process, where liquid water changes into vapor. Sublimation refers to the direct conversion of ice into water vapor without melting, and fusion refers to the process of combining two or more substances into one.

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  • 5. 

    Climatologists are mostly interested in which elements of wind?

    • A.

      Direction, speed, and gustiness

    • B.

      Speed, and gustiness

    • C.

      Direction and speed

    • D.

      Speed and supporting weather elements

    Correct Answer
    A. Direction, speed, and gustiness
    Explanation
    Climatologists are primarily concerned with studying the direction, speed, and gustiness of wind. These elements are crucial in understanding weather patterns, climate patterns, and their impact on various ecosystems. Wind direction helps determine the source and movement of air masses, while wind speed and gustiness provide valuable information about the intensity and variability of weather events. By analyzing these elements, climatologists can gain insights into atmospheric circulation patterns, storm systems, and long-term climate trends.

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  • 6. 

    What is obtained by dividing each wind observation into components, making a summation for a given period, and then obtaining averages and converting components into a single vector?

    • A.

      Summation winds

    • B.

      Vectorial average.

    • C.

      Wind gust potential

    • D.

      Wind size

    Correct Answer
    B. Vectorial average.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is vectorial average. This term refers to the process of dividing wind observations into components, summing them for a given period, and then converting them into a single vector by obtaining averages. This method allows for a comprehensive representation of the wind direction and magnitude during the specified period.

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  • 7. 

    What two factors influence the angle at which the sun’s rays reach the earth and the number of sun hours each day?

    • A.

      Distance and season

    • B.

      Time and date

    • C.

      Cloud cover and sung angle

    • D.

      Rain or shine

    Correct Answer
    A. Distance and season
    Explanation
    The angle at which the sun's rays reach the earth and the number of sun hours each day are influenced by two factors: distance and season. The distance between the earth and the sun affects the angle at which the sun's rays reach the earth. When the earth is closer to the sun, the rays are more direct and the angle is steeper, resulting in more intense sunlight and longer sun hours. On the other hand, the season also plays a role as the tilt of the earth's axis changes throughout the year, causing variations in the angle and duration of sunlight.

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  • 8. 

    Typically how much sunlight does a station near the equator receive?

    • A.

      12 hours

    • B.

      6 hours

    • C.

      8 hours

    • D.

      16 hours

    Correct Answer
    A. 12 hours
    Explanation
    Stations near the equator typically receive 12 hours of sunlight. This is because the Earth's axis is tilted at an angle of approximately 23.5 degrees, causing the Sun to appear to move between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn throughout the year. As a result, areas near the equator experience relatively equal lengths of day and night, with approximately 12 hours of sunlight and 12 hours of darkness.

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  • 9. 

    What is the effect of land and water distribution on air circulation in the Northern Hemisphere?

    • A.

      Creates high and low centers

    • B.

      Creates the seasons

    • C.

      Creates the summer weather

    • D.

      Creates winter weather

    Correct Answer
    A. Creates high and low centers
    Explanation
    The distribution of land and water in the Northern Hemisphere creates high and low centers of air pressure. This is because land heats up and cools down faster than water, leading to differences in temperature and pressure. These pressure differences result in the formation of high and low pressure systems, which drive air circulation and the movement of weather systems.

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  • 10. 

    Which mountains prevent polar air masses from moving southward?

    • A.

      The Rockies and the Alps

    • B.

      The Himalayas and the Rockies

    • C.

      The Himalayas and the Alps.

    • D.

      The Chinese Ing Dun Range and the Swiss Matterhorn

    Correct Answer
    C. The Himalayas and the Alps.
    Explanation
    The Himalayas and the Alps prevent polar air masses from moving southward. These mountain ranges act as barriers, blocking the cold air from moving further south. The high elevation and steep slopes of these mountains create a significant obstacle for the air masses, causing them to be deflected and unable to pass through. As a result, the polar air masses are forced to remain in the northern regions, contributing to the colder climates found in those areas.

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  • 11. 

    Which sides of mountains  receive the greatest amount of precipitation?

    • A.

      Leeward sides

    • B.

      South side

    • C.

      Windward sides

    • D.

      North side

    Correct Answer
    C. Windward sides
    Explanation
    Windward sides of mountains receive the greatest amount of precipitation. When air is forced to rise over a mountain, it cools and condenses, leading to the formation of clouds and precipitation. As a result, the windward side, which faces the prevailing winds, receives more rainfall compared to the leeward side. The air on the leeward side descends and warms, causing it to become drier and less conducive to precipitation. Therefore, the windward side experiences more rainfall, while the leeward side tends to be drier and in the rain shadow of the mountain.

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  • 12. 

    How are high pressures systems displaced in the southern hemisphere during the summer?

    • A.

      Northward

    • B.

      Southward

    • C.

      Eastward

    • D.

      Westward

    Correct Answer
    B. Southward
    Explanation
    During the summer in the southern hemisphere, high-pressure systems are displaced southward. This is because the sun is directly overhead at the Tropic of Capricorn, which creates a strong heating effect in the southern latitudes. As a result, the warm air rises, creating a low-pressure system near the equator. To balance this, air flows from the high-pressure areas towards the low-pressure areas, causing the high-pressure systems to move southward.

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  • 13. 

    What mainly causes ocean currents?

    • A.

      Frictional effects of the wind

    • B.

      Precipitation

    • C.

      Deep underwater swells

    • D.

      Tectonic movement

    Correct Answer
    A. Frictional effects of the wind
    Explanation
    Ocean currents are mainly caused by the frictional effects of the wind. As wind blows across the surface of the ocean, it creates friction with the water, causing it to move. This movement of water creates currents, which can flow in different directions and at various speeds. The frictional effects of the wind are a significant driving force behind the circulation of ocean currents around the world.

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  • 14. 

    What is the basic cause for deflection of ocean currents and air?

    • A.

      Mountain ranges

    • B.

      Differential Heating

    • C.

      Coriolis Force

    • D.

      Ocean dynamics

    Correct Answer
    C. Coriolis Force
    Explanation
    The Coriolis force is the basic cause for the deflection of ocean currents and air. This force is a result of the Earth's rotation and causes moving objects, such as air and water, to be deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. This deflection is responsible for the formation of ocean currents and the direction of wind patterns around the globe.

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  • 15. 

    What is  upwelling?

    • A.

      Upwelling is the process by which the colder subsurface waters are brought to the top of the ocean

    • B.

      Upwelling is the process by which the warmer subsurface waters are brought to the top of the ocean

    • C.

      Upwelling is the process by which the colder subsurface waters are brought to the bottom of the ocean

    • D.

      Upwelling is the process by which ocean currents are brought to the top of the ocean

    Correct Answer
    A. Upwelling is the process by which the colder subsurface waters are brought to the top of the ocean
    Explanation
    Upwelling is the process by which the colder subsurface waters are brought to the top of the ocean. This process occurs when winds blow surface waters away from a coastline, causing deeper, colder waters to rise and replace them. Upwelling is important because it brings nutrient-rich waters from the depths to the surface, supporting the growth of phytoplankton and promoting a productive marine ecosystem.

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  • 16. 

    Where does upwelling normally occur in the Northern Hemisphere?

    • A.

      The west coast

    • B.

      The east coast

    • C.

      The gulf coast

    • D.

      Rivers and lakes

    Correct Answer
    A. The west coast
    Explanation
    Upwelling normally occurs on the west coast of the Northern Hemisphere. This is because of the prevailing winds and the rotation of the Earth, which cause surface waters to move away from the coast. As the surface waters move away, deeper, colder, and nutrient-rich waters rise to the surface, a process known as upwelling. This nutrient-rich water supports the growth of phytoplankton, which in turn attracts a variety of marine life, making the west coast a productive ecosystem.

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  • 17. 

    How fast do the currents of the Gulf Stream system move?

    • A.

      55–75 miles per day or 5–9 knots

    • B.

      55–105 miles per day or 10–15 knots

    • C.

      35–45 miles per day or 3–6 knots

    • D.

      25–75 miles per day or 1–3 knots

    Correct Answer
    D. 25–75 miles per day or 1–3 knots
    Explanation
    The Gulf Stream system is known for its fast-moving currents, which can reach speeds of 1-3 knots or 25-75 miles per day. This strong and swift flow of water is influenced by various factors such as the rotation of the Earth, wind patterns, and temperature differences. These currents play a crucial role in regulating the climate of the surrounding regions and affecting marine ecosystems.

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  • 18. 

    What portion of the Gulf Stream system does the Gulf Stream make up?

    • A.

      Middle

    • B.

      Beginning

    • C.

      End

    • D.

      Makes the entire system

    Correct Answer
    A. Middle
    Explanation
    The Gulf Stream makes up the middle portion of the Gulf Stream system. This suggests that there are other parts of the system that come before and after the Gulf Stream. It implies that the Gulf Stream is not the beginning or end of the system, but rather a significant component in the middle.

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  • 19. 

    What is the effect of the North Atlantic Current on the climate of northwestern Europe?

    • A.

      Causes the climate to be much colder than ordinarily expected

    • B.

      Causes the climate to be much milder than ordinarily expected

    • C.

      Causes the climate to be much hotter than ordinarily expected

    • D.

      Does nto affect the climate there

    Correct Answer
    B. Causes the climate to be much milder than ordinarily expected
    Explanation
    The North Atlantic Current has a significant effect on the climate of northwestern Europe by causing it to be much milder than expected. This warm ocean current brings warm water from the Gulf Stream up towards Europe, which helps to moderate the climate and keep temperatures relatively mild. Without this current, the region would experience much colder temperatures. The North Atlantic Current also influences weather patterns and contributes to the relatively high levels of precipitation in the region.

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  • 20. 

    Where does the North Equatorial Current originate?

    • A.

      The western coast of Northern America

    • B.

      The western coast of Central America

    • C.

      The western coast of South East America

    • D.

      The western coast of Modern America

    Correct Answer
    B. The western coast of Central America
    Explanation
    The North Equatorial Current originates from the western coast of Central America. This current is a warm ocean current that flows eastward across the Pacific Ocean. It is part of the larger Pacific Equatorial Current System and is driven by the trade winds and the Earth's rotation. The current transports warm water from the western Pacific towards the eastern Pacific, influencing weather patterns and ocean circulation in the region.

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  • 21. 

    What North Atlantic current/system is similar to the Kuroshio system?

    • A.

      The Gulf Stream system.

    • B.

      The North Atlantic system

    • C.

      The East Coast system

    • D.

      The Middle Atlantic system

    Correct Answer
    A. The Gulf Stream system.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Gulf Stream system. The Gulf Stream is a powerful warm ocean current in the North Atlantic that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and flows along the eastern coast of the United States before turning eastward towards Europe. It is similar to the Kuroshio system, which is a warm ocean current in the western Pacific that flows northward along the eastern coast of Taiwan and Japan. Both currents play important roles in transporting heat and influencing climate patterns in their respective regions.

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  • 22. 

    Name the branches into which the Kuroshio system divides.

    • A.

      Kuroshio Extension, Kuroshio Flow, and the North Pacific Current.

    • B.

      Kuroshio Current, the Kuroshio Extension, and the North Pacific Current.

    • C.

      Kuroshio Current and the Kuroshio Extension

    • D.

      Kuroshio Extension, and the North Pacific Current.

    Correct Answer
    B. Kuroshio Current, the Kuroshio Extension, and the North Pacific Current.
    Explanation
    The Kuroshio system divides into three branches: the Kuroshio Current, the Kuroshio Extension, and the North Pacific Current.

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  • 23. 

    What causes the ocean currents in the northern Indian Ocean to reverse directions between the February/March and August/September time frames?

    • A.

      Monsoonal flow

    • B.

      Ocean currents

    • C.

      Unequal heating

    • D.

      Earths rotation

    Correct Answer
    A. Monsoonal flow
    Explanation
    The ocean currents in the northern Indian Ocean reverse directions between February/March and August/September due to monsoonal flow. Monsoonal flow refers to the seasonal shift in wind patterns caused by the differential heating of land and sea. During the winter monsoon, cool and dry air flows from the land towards the sea, causing the ocean currents to flow in a clockwise direction. In contrast, during the summer monsoon, warm and moist air flows from the sea towards the land, causing the ocean currents to reverse and flow in a counterclockwise direction.

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  • 24. 

    What is the effect of a forest on local temperatures?

    • A.

      Lower maximums and higher minimums

    • B.

      Higher maximums and lower minimums

    • C.

      There is no noticeable effect

    • D.

      More precipitation annually

    Correct Answer
    A. Lower maximums and higher minimums
    Explanation
    Forests have a moderating effect on local temperatures. During the day, the trees provide shade and evaporative cooling, which leads to lower maximum temperatures. At night, the trees trap heat and prevent it from escaping, resulting in higher minimum temperatures. This phenomenon is known as the urban heat island effect. Therefore, the correct answer is lower maximums and higher minimums.

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  • 25. 

    Name the five basic climatic zones.

    • A.

      The Torrid (or Tropical) Zone, the two Temperate Zones, and the two Polar Zones (or Frigid Zones).

    • B.

      The Torro (or Extratropical) Zone, the two Temperate Zones, and the two Polar Zones (or Frigid Zones).

    • C.

      The Torrid (or Tropical) Zone, the two Moderate Zones, and the two Polar Zones (or Frigid Zones).

    • D.

      The Torrid (or Tropical) Zone, the two Temperate Zones, and the two Frozen Zones (or Freezing Zones).

    Correct Answer
    A. The Torrid (or Tropical) Zone, the two Temperate Zones, and the two Polar Zones (or Frigid Zones).
    Explanation
    The correct answer is The Torrid (or Tropical) Zone, the two Temperate Zones, and the two Polar Zones (or Frigid Zones). These five zones represent the different climatic regions found on Earth. The Torrid Zone is characterized by high temperatures and abundant rainfall, while the Temperate Zones have moderate temperatures and distinct seasons. The Polar Zones, on the other hand, are known for their extremely cold temperatures and polar ice caps. This combination of zones covers the range of climates experienced across the globe.

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  • 26. 

    What are the climatic elements upon which Köppen’s classifications are based?

    • A.

      Temperature, precipitation amounts, and season of maximum precipitation

    • B.

      Precipitation amounts, and season of maximum precipitation

    • C.

      Temperature and precipitation amounts

    • D.

      Temperature, precipitation amounts, and angle of inclination

    Correct Answer
    A. Temperature, precipitation amounts, and season of maximum precipitation
    Explanation
    Köppen's classifications are based on three climatic elements: temperature, precipitation amounts, and season of maximum precipitation. These factors are used to categorize different climates and understand the patterns and characteristics of different regions. By considering these elements, Köppen's classification system provides a comprehensive framework for understanding and analyzing global climate patterns.

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  • 27. 

    Describe the main difference in the basis of Köppen’s and Thornthwaite’s climatic classifications

    • A.

      Thornthwaite’s classification considers temperature.

    • B.

      Thornthwaite’s classification does not consider temperature.

    • C.

      Thornthwaite’s classification does not consider precipitation.

    • D.

      Thornthwaite’s classification does not consider elevation

    Correct Answer
    B. Thornthwaite’s classification does not consider temperature.
    Explanation
    Thornthwaite's climatic classification differs from Kӧppen's classification in that it does not take temperature into account. While Kӧppen's classification considers both temperature and precipitation, Thornthwaite's classification focuses solely on the role of precipitation in determining climate. This means that Thornthwaite's classification does not include temperature as a factor in categorizing climates, making it distinct from Kӧppen's approach.

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  • 28. 

    On what climatic classification system did Trewartha base his own classification system?

    • A.

      Köppen.

    • B.

      Hagen

    • C.

      Strauss

    • D.

      Bidens

    Correct Answer
    A. Köppen.
    Explanation
    Trewartha based his own climatic classification system on the Köppen system.

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  • 29. 

    What are the two temperature indexes that forecasters calculate?

    • A.

      Equivalent chill temperature and heat index.

    • B.

      Temperature and Dew Point

    • C.

      Max and Minimum

    • D.

      Showalters Index and Stability Index

    Correct Answer
    A. Equivalent chill temperature and heat index.
    Explanation
    Forecasters calculate two temperature indexes, which are the equivalent chill temperature and the heat index. The equivalent chill temperature takes into account the combined effects of temperature and wind on the human body, providing an estimate of how cold it feels. On the other hand, the heat index factors in both temperature and humidity to determine how hot it feels to the human body. These two indexes are important for assessing the potential impact of extreme weather conditions on human comfort and health.

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  • 30. 

    The average or collective state of the earth’s atmosphere at any given location or area within a specified period is known as

    • A.

      Climate

    • B.

      Aerology.

    • C.

      Climatology.

    • D.

      Meteorology

    Correct Answer
    A. Climate
    Explanation
    Climate refers to the average or collective state of the earth's atmosphere at any given location or area within a specified period. It encompasses long-term weather patterns, including temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind patterns, and other atmospheric conditions. Climatology is the scientific study of climate, which involves analyzing historical weather data and studying climate patterns and trends. Aerology is the study of the atmosphere's upper layers and their composition, while meteorology focuses on short-term weather conditions and forecasting. Therefore, the correct answer is climate.

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  • 31. 

    Descriptive climatology usually deals with

    • A.

      Geographic regions.

    • B.

      General circulation characteristics

    • C.

      The day-to-day changes in the atmosphere

    • D.

      The physical processes influencing the climate

    Correct Answer
    A. Geographic regions.
    Explanation
    Descriptive climatology typically focuses on studying and understanding the climate patterns and characteristics of different geographic regions. This involves analyzing various factors such as temperature, precipitation, wind patterns, and other climatic variables specific to different locations on Earth. By studying the climate of different regions, researchers can gain insights into the unique climatic features and variations that exist across the globe.

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  • 32. 

    The temperature of an area depends on latitude, distribution of incoming and outgoing radiation, nature of the surface (land or water), altitude, and

    • A.

      Prevailing winds.

    • B.

      Vegetation and human activities.

    • C.

      Annual amount of precipitation.

    • D.

      Semipermanent pressure systems.

    Correct Answer
    A. Prevailing winds.
    Explanation
    Prevailing winds can have a significant impact on the temperature of an area. Winds can carry warm or cold air from one region to another, affecting the overall temperature. For example, winds blowing from a warm region can increase the temperature of an area, while winds blowing from a cold region can lower the temperature. Therefore, the presence and direction of prevailing winds play a crucial role in determining the temperature of an area.

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  • 33. 

    Which climatic element is an important factor in the formation of fog over bodies of water?

    • A.

      Temperature.

    • B.

      Evaporation.

    • C.

      Condensation.

    • D.

      Precipitation.

    Correct Answer
    B. Evaporation.
    Explanation
    Evaporation is the correct answer because it plays a crucial role in the formation of fog over bodies of water. When water evaporates, it turns into water vapor and rises into the air. If the air is cool enough, the water vapor condenses and forms tiny water droplets, creating fog. The temperature of the air is also important, but it is the process of evaporation that provides the moisture necessary for fog formation. Condensation and precipitation are related processes, but they do not directly contribute to the initial formation of fog over bodies of water.

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  • 34. 

    Which climatic element becomes especially important in desert areas?

    • A.

      Winds

    • B.

      Evaporation

    • C.

      Temperature

    • D.

      Condensation

    Correct Answer
    D. Condensation
    Explanation
    In desert areas, where rainfall is scarce, condensation becomes especially important. Condensation is the process by which water vapor in the air transforms into liquid water, forming clouds or dew. In desert regions, the lack of moisture in the air makes condensation a crucial factor in the limited water supply. It allows for the formation of dew on plants and surfaces, which can be a vital source of water for desert-dwelling organisms. Additionally, condensation plays a role in the formation of fog, which can provide some relief from the extreme heat in desert areas.

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  • 35. 

    Which is a vectorial average?

    • A.

      Maximum wind gusts.

    • B.

      The resultant wind.

    • C.

      The average wind speed.

    • D.

      Prevailing wind direction.

    Correct Answer
    B. The resultant wind.
    Explanation
    The vectorial average refers to the mathematical calculation of the resultant vector when multiple vectors are added together. In this context, the resultant wind represents the vectorial average as it combines the direction and magnitude of all the wind vectors in a given area. The maximum wind gusts, average wind speed, and prevailing wind direction do not necessarily take into account the vectorial aspect of the wind, making them incorrect choices for a vectorial average.

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  • 36. 

    The most commonly used climatological parameter is the

    • A.

      Absolute.

    • B.

      Extreme.

    • C.

      Normal.

    • D.

      Mean.

    Correct Answer
    D. Mean.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "mean." The mean is the most commonly used climatological parameter because it represents the average value of a set of data. It provides a measure of central tendency and helps to understand the typical or average conditions of a climate variable over a specific time period. The mean is often used to compare different regions or time periods and is a fundamental statistic in climate analysis and modeling.

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  • 37. 

    The extreme highest and lowest values for any given meteorological element recorded at a place of observation is known as the

    • A.

      Mean.

    • B.

      Normal.

    • C.

      Extreme.

    • D.

      Absolute.

    Correct Answer
    D. Absolute.
    Explanation
    The extreme highest and lowest values for any given meteorological element recorded at a place of observation are known as the absolute values. These values represent the maximum and minimum values that have been recorded for that specific element, providing a measure of the range of values that can occur. The term "absolute" emphasizes that these values are not influenced by any other factors and are the most extreme values observed.

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  • 38. 

    The highest and lowest value for any given meteorological element that has occurred over a particular period is known as the

    • A.

      Mean.

    • B.

      Normal.

    • C.

      Extreme.

    • D.

      Absolute.

    Correct Answer
    C. Extreme.
    Explanation
    The highest and lowest value for any given meteorological element that has occurred over a particular period is known as the extreme. This refers to the maximum and minimum values recorded during that period, which could be temperature, precipitation, wind speed, or any other meteorological variable. The extreme values provide important information about the range and variability of the element, helping in understanding the overall climate patterns and assessing potential risks or impacts.

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  • 39. 

    What are the two types of frequency distributions?

    • A.

      Standard and mean.

    • B.

      Primary and secondary.

    • C.

      Random and probability.

    • D.

      Continuous and discrete.

    Correct Answer
    D. Continuous and discrete.
    Explanation
    The two types of frequency distributions are continuous and discrete. Continuous frequency distributions are used when the data can take any value within a given range, such as measurements on a scale. Discrete frequency distributions are used when the data can only take specific values, such as whole numbers or categories. These two types of distributions are used to organize and analyze data in different contexts, depending on the nature of the data being collected.

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  • 40. 

    Thunderstorm occurrences are an example of

    • A.

      Finite data.

    • B.

      Absolute data.

    • C.

      Discrete data.

    • D.

      Continuous data.

    Correct Answer
    C. Discrete data.
    Explanation
    Thunderstorm occurrences are discrete data because they can be counted and measured as individual events. Each thunderstorm is a distinct occurrence that can be identified and recorded separately. Discrete data refers to data that can only take on specific, distinct values and cannot be measured on a continuous scale. In contrast, continuous data would be something that can be measured on a continuous scale, such as temperature or time.

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  • 41. 

    The most common value in a frequency distribution is known as the

    • A.

      Mode.

    • B.

      Mean.

    • C.

      Median.

    • D.

      Standard.

    Correct Answer
    A. Mode.
    Explanation
    The most common value in a frequency distribution is known as the mode. The mode represents the value that occurs most frequently in the data set. It is determined by finding the value with the highest frequency or count. Unlike the mean and median, the mode does not involve any calculations or averaging. It simply identifies the value that appears most often.

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  • 42. 

    The type of deviation used most often in meteorological studies is the

    • A.

      Mean deviation.

    • B.

      Random deviation.

    • C.

      Finite deviation.

    • D.

      Standard deviation.

    Correct Answer
    D. Standard deviation.
    Explanation
    The standard deviation is the most commonly used type of deviation in meteorological studies. It measures the dispersion or variability of data points from the mean. It provides valuable information about the spread of data and helps in understanding the distribution of meteorological variables. Other types of deviation like mean deviation, random deviation, and finite deviation are not as widely used in meteorological studies as the standard deviation.

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  • 43. 

    The climate of a region is impacted most by

    • A.

      Latitude.

    • B.

      Altitude.

    • C.

      Ocean currents.

    • D.

      Mountain barriers.

    Correct Answer
    A. Latitude.
    Explanation
    The climate of a region is impacted most by latitude because it determines the amount of solar radiation received by an area. As latitude increases, the angle at which sunlight reaches the Earth's surface decreases, resulting in cooler temperatures. This leads to variations in temperature and climate patterns across different latitudes. Altitude, ocean currents, and mountain barriers also influence climate, but their effects are secondary to latitude.

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  • 44. 

    Coastal areas take on the temperature characteristics of the land or water

    • A.

      To their leeward side.

    • B.

      To their windward side.

    • C.

      That has the highest average temperature.

    • D.

      That the current air mass was formed over.

    Correct Answer
    B. To their windward side.
    Explanation
    Coastal areas take on the temperature characteristics of the land or water to their windward side. This means that the temperature of the coastal area is influenced by the temperature of the air or water mass that is coming from the windward side. The windward side refers to the side from which the wind is blowing. Therefore, the temperature of the coastal area will be determined by the temperature of the air or water mass that is coming from that direction.

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  • 45. 

    Why is the mean temperature of the Northern Hemisphere higher than that of the Southern Hemisphere?

    • A.

      There is more land in the Northern Hemisphere.

    • B.

      Oceans in the Northern Hemisphere are warmer.

    • C.

      Oceans of the Northern Hemisphere are more protected from cold polar waters by land barriers.

    • D.

      It is higher for all these reasons.

    Correct Answer
    D. It is higher for all these reasons.
    Explanation
    The mean temperature of the Northern Hemisphere is higher than that of the Southern Hemisphere due to a combination of factors. Firstly, there is more land in the Northern Hemisphere, which tends to heat up more quickly than water. Secondly, the oceans in the Northern Hemisphere are generally warmer than those in the Southern Hemisphere, contributing to higher temperatures. Lastly, the land barriers in the Northern Hemisphere protect the oceans from cold polar waters, further adding to the higher mean temperature. Therefore, the mean temperature is higher in the Northern Hemisphere for all these reasons.

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  • 46. 

    Rome, Italy and New York City are at approximately the same latitude, yet Rome has a much milder winter climate. What factor is mostly responsible for this?

    • A.

      Prevailing westerlies

    • B.

      East-west orientation of the Alps.

    • C.

      North-south orientation of the Apennine Mountains.

    • D.

      Mediterranean Sea surrounding Italy on three sides.

    Correct Answer
    B. East-west orientation of the Alps.
    Explanation
    The east-west orientation of the Alps is mostly responsible for Rome, Italy having a much milder winter climate compared to New York City. The Alps act as a barrier, blocking cold air masses from moving into Italy, while allowing warmer air from the Mediterranean Sea to flow into the region. This results in a more temperate climate in Rome, with milder winters.

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  • 47. 

    What two general topographical features have the greatest affect on the climate of an area?

    • A.

      Altitude and mountain barriers.

    • B.

      Altitude and proximity to large bodies of water.

    • C.

      Vegetation and proximity to large bodies of water.

    • D.

      Mountain barriers and proximity to large bodies of water.

    Correct Answer
    A. Altitude and mountain barriers.
    Explanation
    Altitude refers to the height above sea level, and it affects climate because as altitude increases, the temperature decreases. This is due to the fact that the air becomes thinner at higher altitudes, leading to lower atmospheric pressure and less heat retention. Mountain barriers, on the other hand, can block the movement of air masses, leading to the creation of different climate zones on either side of the barrier. These barriers can cause the air to rise, cool, and release moisture, resulting in increased rainfall on one side and a rain shadow effect on the other side. Therefore, altitude and mountain barriers have the greatest affect on the climate of an area.

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  • 48. 

    Which pressure centers are the major climatic controls affecting climate?

    • A.

      Low-pressure centers.

    • B.

      High-pressure centers.

    • C.

      Migratory pressure centers.

    • D.

      Semipermanent pressure centers.

    Correct Answer
    D. Semipermanent pressure centers.
    Explanation
    Semipermanent pressure centers are the major climatic controls affecting climate. These pressure centers, also known as subtropical highs and subpolar lows, are characterized by their relatively stable and consistent positions throughout the year. They play a crucial role in determining wind patterns, precipitation, and temperature distribution in different regions. The movement and interaction of these semipermanent pressure centers influence the formation of weather systems, such as monsoons and trade winds, which ultimately shape the climate of a particular area.

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  • 49. 

    A secondary cause of the surface ocean currents is the

    • A.

      Topography of the ocean bottom.

    • B.

      Gravitational attraction of the moon and sun.

    • C.

      Differences in the mean water level of the world’s oceans.

    • D.

      Density differences due to salinity and temperature variations.

    Correct Answer
    D. Density differences due to salinity and temperature variations.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is density differences due to salinity and temperature variations. Surface ocean currents are influenced by the density of the water, which is affected by both salinity and temperature. When water is more dense, it sinks and creates a current, while less dense water rises and creates another current. Salinity and temperature variations can lead to differences in water density, causing the movement of surface ocean currents. The other options, such as the topography of the ocean bottom and gravitational attraction of the moon and sun, may also have some influence on ocean currents, but they are considered secondary causes compared to density differences.

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  • 50. 

    What are the two fastest ocean currents in the Northern Hemisphere?

    • A.

      Gulf Stream and the Florida Current.

    • B.

      Kuroshio System and the Gulf Stream.

    • C.

      Antilles Current and the Kuroshio System.

    • D.

      North Equatorial Current and the Antilles Current.

    Correct Answer
    B. Kuroshio System and the Gulf Stream.
    Explanation
    The Kuroshio System and the Gulf Stream are the two fastest ocean currents in the Northern Hemisphere. The Kuroshio System is a warm ocean current that flows northward off the eastern coast of Asia, while the Gulf Stream is a warm ocean current that flows northward along the eastern coast of North America. These currents are known for their high speeds and play a significant role in the transport of heat and nutrients, as well as influencing weather patterns and marine ecosystems in their respective regions.

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