Stage I A stage I pressure ulcer is an area of nonblanchable erythema, tissue swelling, and congestion, and the patient complains of discomfort.
Stage IV A stage IV pressure ulcer extends into the underlying structure, including the muscle and possibly the bone.
Stage III Clinically, a deep crater with or without undermining of adjacent tissues is noted.
Stage II A stage II ulcer exhibits a break in the skin through the epidermis or dermis.
Reflex (neurogenic) incontinence
Bias against older people based solely on chronological age
Fear of old age.
Loss of memory.
Benign senescent forgetfulness.
Residual lung volume
Gas exchange and diffusing capacity
Reduce the perception of pain.
Inhibit the transmission of pain.
Increase sensitivity of pain receptors.
Inhibit the transmission of noxious stimuli
Placebos should never be used to test the person’s truthfulness about pain.
A placebo effect is an indication that the person does not have pain.
A placebo should be used as the first line of treatment for the patient.
A positive response to a placebo indicates that the person’s pain is not real.
Tolerance to opioids is uncommon.
Addiction to opioids commonly develops.
The nurse must be primarily concerned about development of addiction by the patient in pain.
Although patients may need increasing levels of opioids, they are not addicted.
Stimulation, then depression
The osmotic pressure exerted by proteins.
The number of dissolved particles contained in a unit of fluid.
the excretion of substances such as glucose through increased urine output.
The amount of pressure needed to stop flow of water by osmosis.
Lactated Ringer’s solution.