Women's Studies Exam 2

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Flashcards For Exam 2

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luteinizing hormone suppresses growth in all follicles except one; this follicle then releases the ovum, or egg, on approximately the 14th day of the menstrual cycle.
menstrual pain; painful cramps in the abdomen. Also includes headache, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, and pain in the lower back. NOT the same as PMS. Highly anxious women report having more menstrual pain than less anxious women. (causal arrow unknown)
substances that the body produces in high concentrations just before menstruation, and they can cause severe cramps.
name given to a variety of symptoms that occur before menstruating. Symptoms: headaches, breast soreness, swelling, nausea, sensitivity to pain, acne, psychological reactions (depression, irritability, etc.)
Why is PMS controversial?
1. Researchers don't agree on its operational definition. 2. Some claim that ALL women experience it--unfair because it puts women at the mercy of their "raging hormones." 
Two Factors that Cause Premenstrual Problems
1. Psychological factors, such as anxiety and strong endorsement of traditionally feminine gender roles. 2 . Cultural factors, such as our culture's belief that PMS is a well-established fact.
Which cultures have a taboo against menstruating women?
Creek Indians in Oklahoma (don't touch them!), European Americans, North Americans (euphemisms)
individual's self-rating of personal characteristics along with biological, psychological, or social dimensions. Four components considered: body image, feminist identity, ethnic identity, and self-esteem.
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder-: 3-9% of women experience severe PMS. Listed in DSM-IV as "depressive disorder not otherwise specified."  Does it exist? Some researchers determine it is a distinct clinical entity; others say there is no evidence. They say the same symptoms in men would be normal, but in women they are viewed as a mental disorder. It stigmatizes women as mentally ill and covers up the real reason for their anguish. Undermines women's self-concepts and feeds into the stereotypes about women. :(
Study: Name some things that make you feel bad about yourselves.
38% of eighth-grade girls reported dissatisfaction with their bodies, compared to only 15% of boys. Young women's self-concepts are often shaped by whether they believe they are attractive.
A belief system in which women's experiences and ideals are valued. Feminists argue that women and men should be socially, economically, and legally equal.
Feminist social identity
people are likely to say that they support feminist ideas but they are unlikely to claim a feminist social identity and say "yes, I am a feminist."
Ego development
a kind of psychological growth in which people develop a more complex view of themselves and of their relationships with people. People who support feminist beliefs are more advanced in ego development.
Ethnic Identity
people's sense that they belong to an ethnic group, as well as their attitudes and behaviors toward that group. Females and males don't differ in the strength of their ethnic identity. White-as-normative concept.
a measure of how much you like and value yourself. Gender differences? It depends. Meta-analysis concludes that the average male scores are slightly higher in self-esteem than the average female scores. Differences are largest around late adolescence. Males and females are about the same during childhood, early adolescence, and later adulthood. Gender differences are large for European Americans but about the same for Blacks. (Black females are higher in self-esteem than females from other ethnic groups). Gender differences are large among lower-class and middle-class participants.
How can young women maintain academic aspirations in middle- and high-school?
If schools make gender equality a priority, institute a mentoring system, have high expectations for young women, and encourage them to become leaders in their field. Also, they must emphasize both ethnic equality and social-class equality.
When do females start to form negative attitudes toward traditionally male courses?
Middle school.
True or False: women are currently more likely than men to pursue higher education
True! :) However, relatively few college professors are women. (39% ish)
chill classroom climate
faculty members treat men and women differently in the classroom, and women feel ignored and devalued. More likely in male-dominated disciplines. Feminists and students of color are more likely to experience it.
Who is more likely to attend college, Black women or Black men?
Black women, perhaps because athletics and high salaries are more valued in Black men?
Tribal colleges
2- and 4-year institutions that provide a transition between native culture and the predominately European American "mainstream" culture. Presently there are 32 tribal colleges. Train Native Americans (especially women) in fields such as health care.
Women who pursue high-prestige, non-traditional careers:
high grades in school, independent, self-confident, assertive, emotionally stable, satisfied with their lives, parents from a well educated and middle- or upper-class background, supportive and encouraging family, female role models, work experience as an adolescent.
The truth about family relationships
most adolescents, both females and males, actually get along well with their parents, and agree on substantive matters such as religion, politics, education, and social values
true or false: females and males report similar family experiences
true, but females may be more encouraged to emphasize their emotions
women and friendships
relationships with girlfriends provides a support system in an environment that often seems hostile.
Trends in adolescent relationships
Last about 4 months (longer in late adolescence); likely to describe their romantic partners in terms of positive personality traits (nice or funny); males more likely to mention physical attractiveness; females more likely to emphasize personal characteristics, such as support and intimacy.
When do young lesbians first realize their attraction to females?
Age 11. Most likely to first "come out" to a friend. Lesbians typically overcome most negative messages from their community and family, and they construct positive self-images. 94% of women surveyed said they were glad to be lesbian or bisexual.