Western Civ Final

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Western Civ  Final

SJU Western Civ 1 Final

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Basil II
Destroyed power in Byzantine Empire
Saints Cyril and Methodius
Introduced Cyrillic alphabet 
Emperor Alexius
called for help w/ W. Turks
Pope Urban II
called for crusade
1st Crusade
capture of Jerusalem
muslim leader responsible for uniting Egypt and syria
Richard the Lionheart
english king who led the 3rd crusade
4th Crusade
led to the Sack of Constantinople
Emperor Frederick II 
Negotiates with Muslims for control over Jerusalem for 10 years
Egypt & Tunis 
Objectives of 13th century crusades
holy war
known for Chivalry
Blanche of Castille
ruled in absent of son King Louis IX (st. louis)
In return for property or wealth offered Homage to their lords
system in which public powers of minting, justice and taxation and defense were in the hands of private lords
King William the Conqueror
est power of monarchy over lords in England
King Henry I
created the office of Exchequer to maintain the treasury of the kingdom
King Henry II
expanded the use of juries in England
Thomas Becket
Opposed civil trials of clergymen
King John
was forced to sign the Magna Carta
King Edward I
king responsible for establishing the role of Parliament in England
King Louis VI “the Fat” 
consolidated royal control over Paris
King Philip II
began administrative kingship in France
King Louis IX-St. Louis
Extended royal control over southern France
Emperor Frederick I -“Barbarossa” 
proclaimed kingdom Holy Roman Empire in Germany
King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella
Financed the exploration of New World by Christopher Columbus
Attempted to strengthen rule of succession in the Roman Empire through tetrarchy
Theodosius the Great
made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire 
Jewish radical who believed in the violent overthrow of Roman rule and the coming of the Messiah
conservative Jewish,  who believed in strict adherence to the laws of the Torah
Jewish who were  devotion to religious law, but were flexible to applying it everyday life
Jewish group that lived a monastic life to escape the temptations of the world 
St. Paul
Responsible for spreading Christianity beyond the Jews
Christians who believed the Jesus was lesser than God, but greater than man
Christians who believed in the co-equality of God, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit
Council of Nicaea
the MEETING that established the co-equality of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit known as the true doctrine of the Church
St. Benedict of Nursia
Codified the rules of Monasticism
Emperor Valens
Lost Battle of Adrianople to the Goths
 leader of the Goths who sacked Rome
Romulus Augustulus
last emperor to rule the Western Empire
St. Jerome
man responsible for writing the Vulgate Bible
St. Ambrose
developed the concept of the Superiority of the Church over kings
St. Augustine
author of Confessions & On the City of God
Wrote Institutes which compiled all the classical works that religious teachers needed to know
last emperor who tried to recover what had been the Roman Empire
The Code
Laws of the Roman Empire from the Emperor Hadrian to Justinian
Chosen by Justinian to collect the laws of the empire
The Novels
book that contained the legislation of Justinian and his successors 
The Digest
summary of the writings of the great jurists of the Roman Empire
The Institutes
textbook of the legal principles reflected in the Digest and the Code
general who was chosen by Justinian to reconquer the Western empire  
Leo the Isaurian
Started Eastern Christian reforms known as Iconoclasm
Battle of Manzikert
Destruction of Byzantine army by Seljuk Turks
Last in long line of God’s prophets
Tribe that controlled trade in Mecca
Journey from Mecca to Medina that marks the beginning of Muslim calendar
City that asked for Muhammad to come there to settle conflict of tribes
The Kabah
sacred stone worshipped by Muslims 
holy city of Islam
book containing the words of God to Muhammad
Abu Bakr
First Caliph
successor of the prophet
oriented to the west
Oriented to the east
Harun al-Rashid
ruler of Abbasid empire at it's height
Arabian Nights
Stories that describe the Abbasid Empire
Believe in the succession of Caliphs 
Muslim group that insists that only the descendents of Ali can rule 
Al-Hakem II
Ruler of Umayyad kingdom of Spain. Had a  library of 400,000 books
Spiritual leaders of Islam
rule on the meaning of Islamic law
author of the Canon of Medicine
attempts to reconcile Aristotle’s philosophy with Muslim faith
Gregory of Tours
6th century bishop whose diary recorded life in Gaul
St. Gregory the Great (Pope Gregory I)-
Support of monasticism
Charles Martel
Second founder of Frankish state
Battle of Tours
Defeat of Muslim incursion into France by Charles Martel
Father of Charlemagne who became first Carolingian king
Mayor of the Palace
Controlled affairs under Merovingian kings  
Established powerful kingdom of the Franks  
Provincial rulers under Charlemagne
Carolingian miniscule
The spacing of words and letters 
Pope Leo III
Crowns Charlemagne Roman Emperor
Louis the Pious
Son of Charlemagne who was unable to maintain control of empire of his father 
Charles the Bald
Grandson of Charlemagne who gained control of France
Louis the German
Grandson of Charlemagne who inherited what became Germany
Grandson of Charlemagne who gained control of the Middle Kingdom
Alfred the Great
English king who codified English Law  
City that asked for Muhammad to come there to settle conflict of tribes