United States History Chapter 24

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United States History Chapter 24

To Help Me Study For My Upcoming Exam In History. 

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Two of the most influential French thinkers of the Enlightenment were these men; one who was known as the Father of Enlightenment, and and another who known as the Father of French Romanticism.
Voltaire and Rousseau
The three most influential thinkers of this time were the German philosophers this man and the German teholgoian Schleiermacher. This philosopher howeversaid that the senses and the mind are the sole avenues of knowledge and that man cannot know God or the soul by either of these avenues. 
Immanuel Kant
This man was also a philosopher who introduced dialectic thinking.
G.W.F. Hegel
This theologian, a follower of Kant, is called the Father of Theological Liberalism. 
Frriedrich Schleiermacher
This british naturalist popularized the idea in 1859 when he published the Origin of Species
Charles Darwin
The man most responsible for the rise of modern socialism was this man; also known as the Father of Communism. 
Karl Marx
He was President Wilson's secretary of state who also became well known for his work in settling international disputes through arbitration. 
William Jennings Bryan
Under the forceful leadership of this man, Germany was eager to flex its muscles, expand, and demonstrate its strength to the older nations of Europe. 
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Spiritually bankrupt Europe found an excuse for war on June 28, 1914, when this man, who was heir to the Austrian throne, and his wife were shot by a Serbian assassin in the Bosnian town of Sarajevo. 
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
During the war, the federal government controlled the nation's railroads and placed them undert he supervision of this Secretary of the Treasury
William G. McAdoo
The board was headed by ex-President and prominent lawyer Frank P. Walsh. 
William Howard Taft
A food administration was created under the leadership of this man, who a mining engineer, who had become well-known for his relief work among the suffering people of Belgium earlier in the war. 
Herbert Hoover
Among those arrested under the terms of the Espionage Act was this man, and influential Socialist leader. 
Eugene Debs
President Wislon appointed this general to be commander of the American troops in France, the American Expeditionary Force (AEF). 
John J. Pershing
By the end of the war, Americans could boast 22 "acres," the most famous of which was this man, who destroyed over 20 enemy planes and several balloons.
Eddie Rickenbacker
General Pershing agreed to put all American troops under the temporary command of the this French man, who had been appointed commander of the Allied Forces.
Marshal Foch
It was during this campaign that this Tennessean became a hero by singlehandedly killing 20 germans and capturing 132 more. 
Alvin C. York
This senator of Massachusetts, chairman of the influential Senate Foreign Relations Committee, was strongly opposed to accepting the treaty unless steps were taen to ensure against the jeapardizing of American sovereignty. 
Henry Cabot Lodge
What was a movement that attempted to apply unaided human reason to all areas of life to bring about a new social order? The ideas that led, at least indiretly, to the world wars began in England during the 17th century and gained momentum in France during the 18th century in a movement known as this. 
What is the idea that man's reason is the sole critterion for truth?

What is the theory that experience is the only source of knowledge?
What is the philosophical doctrine that the truth of all knowledge must always be in question?

What is belief in an impersonal god who, after creating the world, left it to run by natural laws and left man to take care of himself using his intellect.
rationalism, empiricism, skepticism, deism
What is the desire t break loose from their established governments and rule themselves based on what they saw as natural boundaries of natioal origin. 
revolutionary nationalism
What was first developed in German universities, became an icreasing challenge to Protestantism in the 19th century with its departure from a literal acceptance of the Bible. 
higher criticism 
Also known as religious liberalism, originated in German universities in the early 19th century when German theologians began to exalt their own reason above God's word, teaching that the Bible was a collection of myths, legends, and a few historical facts. 
Darwin proposed that all life on the earth, incuding man, evolved, or came into being, by means of natural processes. 
Charles Darwin published what came to be called as this. 
The Origin of Species
What reduces man to a complex machine whose personality is merely an interrelation of chemical and physical properties. 
What is the belief that all economic, political, and social life must be planned, controlled, and regulated by the state to insure the greatest good for the greatest number.

What is a stateless, classless, perfect condition beyond socialism.
socialism, communism
Before World War I, however, socialism was the more prominent threat. Socialist groups sprang up all over Europe and many socialist political parties were formed, most notably this in Germany. 
social democratic party
The US Tried to alleviate these tensions and promote peace by taking part in two international peace conferences held at this place in the Netherlands.
the hague
On the one side was this consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and ITaly.

On the other side was this consisting of Great Britain, France, and Russia.
triple alliance, triple entente
World War I, known in its own day as this had begun. 
Great War
This power included Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey.

This power included Great Britain, France, Russia, Serbia, Belgium, Romania, Japan, Portugal, Montenegro, Greece, and Italy.
Central Powers, Allies
The German navy introduced a new weapon of war--the subarmine (Untersee-boot), commonly reffered to as this.

This was known as surprise attack.
U-Boat, unrestricted sumbarine warfare
Americans were shocked by the news that the Germands had sunk a large British luxury liner known as this off the coast of Ireland. 
The German government made this pledge with one important stipulation: the US must persuade Great Britain to abide by the rules of international law in conducting its blockade of German ports. 
sussex Pledge
In June 1916, Congress passed this act which provided for an increase in the size of the regular army and the organizing of a national guard of 450,000 men, subject to be called into action by the President.
National Defense Act
British agents intercepted and decoded a secret message which the German foreign secretary, Arthur Zimmermann, had sent to the German minister in Mexico.
Zimmermann Note
Congress passed this act which required all men from age 21 through age 30 to register with local draft boards.
selective service act
Americans demonstrated their patriotism through their enthusiastic response to these four drives conducted during the war and this drive conducted in 1919 to help finish the job. 
Victory Loans
Liberty Loans
To coordinate these efforts, the federal government created this board to regulate all phases of industrial production and distribution.
War Industries Board
Early in 1918, this board was created to act as a court of arbitration to settle labor disputes. 
National War Labor Board
This was created under the leadership of Herbert Hoover.
Food Administration
In August 1917, this was established to supervise the rationing of fuel in both factories and homes. 
Fuel Administration
In order to help boost support for the war cause, the government created this which carefully planned a campaign to help keep morale high.
Committee of Public Information
In June 1917, Congress adopted this act which provided stiff penalities for anyone who furnished information which would aid the enemy, obstruct recruiting, or encourage insuboardination in the armed forces. 
Espionage Act 
At this battle, in the North Sea, the British had badly crippled the German fleet of destroyers, battleships, and cruisers, making it nearly inactive. 
verdun, Battle of Jutland
American soldiers, often called this, served on European soil. 
This made its deubt during World War I. American airmen compiled an admirable record in france. Pilots who downed at least five enemy craft were called this. 
air warfare, "aces"
In November 1917, this group of radical communists led by this man, had come to pwoer in Russia. 
Nikolai Lenin, Bolshevik Revolution
In March 1918, this made the peace between Russia and Germany official. 
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
The Germans used one of their famous long-range guns, to bombard Paris from 75 miles away. 
Big Bertha
America's First Division stormed the fortified position of this place. In june, her second and third divisions joined the French north of the Marne, a river that flows northwest into the Seine at Paris) and helped to drive the Germans from this other place. 
Cantigny, Belleau Wood
To the northwest, another American force helped to make an attack against this line,  a fortified german defense line formed by an intricate system of deep trenches and dugouts.

One of the major accomplishments of the American forces in the Allied counteroffensive was the capturing of this, a strong fortification which the Germans had held since 1914.

On September 26, American forces began this campaign, working their way along the banks of this river in northeast france and through the heavily overgrown to capture the strategic German railroad center at Sedan, 30 miles away. 
Hindenburg Line, St. Mihiel, MeuseArgonne Campaign
In a speech to Congress on Jaunary 8, 1918, he listed these points as the only possible program for world peace. 
Fourteen Points 
In the US, the name was changed from Armistice Day to this in 1954. 
Veterans Day
President Wilson, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of England, Premier Goerges Clemenceau of France, and PRime Minister Vittorio Orlando of Italy. 
Big Four
Convinced that the most crtical step in maintaining futrue world peace was the establishment of this, President Wilson insisted that his league be made a part of the treaty itself.
League of Nations
What was a series of compromises, with Wilson's 14 points, including the covenant of the League of Nations, influencing the terms of the treaty. 
Treaty of Versailles 
the center of European rivalry 
The assassination of Archduke and his wife

June 28, 1914
the incident that initiated World War I and the date it happened.
July 28, 1914
the date for the beginning of World War I 
Economic considerations
Submarine warfare
sussex pledge
the reasons why Americans were sympathetic with the Allies
unrestriscted submarine warfare
zimmermann note
two events that helped bring the US into World War I. 
April 2, 1917
the date the US entered world War I
trenches, poison gas, machine guns, tanks
three new weapons were used in World War I 
Germany was to evacuate all occupied territory and withrdaw all of her tropps from west of the Rhine

A strip of land about six miles wide on the east bank of the Rhine was to be a neutral zone.

Allied troops were to be allowed to occupy German territory.
the terms of the armistice ending World War I
November 11, 1918
the date for armistice Day 
German territorial losses

Demilitarization of Germany

Reparation and admission of guilt

the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles