Tissues Flashcards

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What are the 4 types of tissues?
1) Epithelial
2) Connective
3) Muscle
4) Nervous
What are the 3 types of Epithelial Tissue?
1) Simple Epithelia
2) Stratified (multi-layered) Epithelia
3) Glandular Epithelia
What are the 4 types of connective tissue?
1) Connective tissue proper
2) Cartilage
3) Osseous (Bone) Tissue
4) Vascular (Blood) Tissue
What are the 3 types of Muscle Tissue?
1) Smooth
2) Skeletal
3) Cardiac
What are the 2 types of nervous tissue?
1) Neurons
2) Neuroglia
What is the "social structure" of epithelial tissue?
All epithelial tissue is closely packed with little to no space in between
What is the social structure of Connective Tissue?
Connective Tissue cells are spread widely apart; loosely scattered
What is the social structure of each type of Muscle Tissue?
smooth muscle is the least specialized
cardiac muscle is more specialized
skeletal muscle is the most highly specialized and integrated
What is the social structure of nervous tissue?
nervous tissue is (like skeletal muscle tissue) highly specialized and integrated
How much extracellular matrix is there in epithelial tissue?
Very little
How much extracellular matrix is there in connective tissue?
There is MORE MATRIX than cells (so lots)
What is special about the extracellular matrix of connective tissue?
It determines the quality of the tissue. 
How much extracellualr matrix is there in muscle tissue?
very little
How much extracellular matrix is there in nervous tissue?
very little
What is the vascular supply like for epithelial tissue?
What is the vascular supply like for connective tissue?
Highly vascularized (except for DENSE FIBROUS & CARTILAGE)
What is the vascular supply like for muscle tissue?
extensive vascular supply
What is the vascular supply like for nervous tissue?
extensive vascular supply
What germ layer does epithelium arise from?
All 3, but mostly ECTODERM
What germ layer does connective tissue come from?
What germ layer does muscle tissue arise from?
What germ layer does nervous tissue arise from
Where is epithelial tissue located?
the surface of the body (skin) and visceral organs
the lining of body cavities and lumina (inner layers)
the secretory portion of glands
Where is connective tissue located?
throughout the bodt, but not on free surfaces or body cavities
Where is muscle tissue located?
Smooth is found in the walls of hollow organs
cardiac is the heart muscle
skeletal covers and spans skeletal joints via tendons
where is nervous tissue located?
in the brain and spinal cord as well as peripheral branches throughout the body
What are the main functions of epithelial tissue?
What are the main functions of connective tissue?
bind organs together
structural support
metabolic support
repair body organs
What are the main functions of muscle tissue?
Body motion
Movement of materials through the body
Maintenance of body posture
heat production
What are the main functions of nervous tissue?
respond to stimuli
initiate and conduct nerve impulses
coordinate body activities
regulates organs and glands
stores memories
Which are the highly specialized and modified tissue types?
Nervous and Muscle
Which are the all-purpose, wide variety tissue types
Epithelial and connective
The three types of covering/lining epithelia are what?
1) Simple (1 layer)
2) Pseudostratified (1 layer)
3) Stratified (multilayer)
Simple covering/lining epithelia can take on what 3 shapes?
1) squamous
2) cuboidal
3) columnar
Pseudostratified epithelia takes on what shape/characteristic?
ciliated columnar with goblet cells
Stratified epithelial tissue takes on what 4 shapes?
1) Squamous
2) Cuboidal
3) Columnar
4) Transitional
What are the 3 structural classifications of the glandular epithelia exocrine glands?
1) unicellular goblet cell
2) multicellular simple
3) multicellular compound
What does an exocrine gland do?
Secretes something onto an epithelial surface either directly or though a DUCT
Simple glandular epitheilial exocrine glands can take on what 5 shapes?
2) Branched tubular
3) Coiled Tubular
4) Acinar
5) Tubuloacinar
Compound glandular epithilial exocrine glands can take on what 3 shapes?
1) Tubular
2) Acinar
3) Tubuloacinar
What do endocrine glands do?
Secrete a product directly into the blood stream
What are the 3 functional classifications of exocrine glands?
1) Holocrine
2) Merocrine
3) Apocrine
What do holocrine glands do?
secrete altered cells of the gland as the product
Product is Grease
What do merocrine glands do?
secrete some product while the cells of the gland remain intact
Product is Sweat
What do apocrine glands do?
Secrete part of the glandular cell's protoplasm as part of the secreted material
Product is Protein
How does all epithelia begin?
As simple epithelia that may later become stratified
What is ALWAYS true of epithelial tissue?
Epithelium always sits on top of connective tissue
Why is respiratory epithelium so thin?
Allows gas exchange 
How are glands formed?
Epithelial cells begin to grow downward and penetrate the connective tissue below. A duct forms and the exocrine secretory cells specialize within the connective tissue. An endocrine gland will be formed if the cells forming the duct are subsequently terminated. 
What are the products of the 3 types of exocrine glands?
Apocrine - Protein
Merocrine - Sweat
Holocrine - Grease
What is a definitive sign of sexual maturity in many animals?
When concentrations of the three types of exocrine glands develope over specific regions of the body "causing the organism to stink!"
What is mesenchyme?
The first connective tissue to appear in the developing embyro. It gives rise to all other forms of connective tissue. It is scattered around adult connective tissue where it helps in repair precesses.Stem Cells!
What are the 5 types of Connective Tissue Proper?
1) Loose (Areolar)
2) Adipose (Fatty)
3) Dense Fibrous (regular or irregular)
4) Elastic
5) Reticular
What characteristic is similar between Loose, Adipose, Dense Fibrous, and elastic Connective Tissue Propers?
They are all in a semisolid matrix with think collagenous and elastic fibers
What makes reticular Connective Tissue Proper different from the other 4 types?
It's semisold matrix has a fine network of extracellular reticular fibers instead of thick collagenous and elastic fibers
What are the 3 types of cartilage?
1) Hyaline
2) Fibrocartilage
3) Elastic
What is cartilage's matrix like?
solid elastic with fibers
What are the 2 types of bone tissue?
1) Compact
2) Spongy
Compare and contrast Fascia and Tendons
Both are made of dense fibrous connective tissue proper with loads of collagen produced
Fascia contains irregular collagen patterns making it strong in all directions
Tendons have regular collagen patterns making them strong in only one axis.
What is the relationship between Elastic connective tissue and age?
As we age, elastin inside elastic connective tissue becomes replaced with collagen, so the tissue looses elasticity. 
What are the chemical constituents of cartilage?
Chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid
What are the two types of chondrocytes and what do they do?
Chondroblasts build cartilage
Chondroclasts break cartilage down
What are the two types of osteocytes and what do they each do?
osteoblasts build bone
osteoclasts break bone down
What is the chemical constituent of bone matrix?
Calcium Apetite
Where should you look in classifying a specimen of epithelial tissue?
Always label the epithelium according to what the "top" looks like
What is basal lamina?
A layer of tissue that connects epithelial tissue to connective tissue. 
What function(s) do simple epithelium ALWAYS play in an organism?
Absorption and secretion
What happens as cells mature and move to the exterior surface of stratified squamous epithelium?
The cells are constantly maturing upwards producing more keratin and containing less water
What does stratified mean in terms of epithelium?
Is transitional epithelium more simple or stratified? Why?
Simple, because each cell does touch the basement membrane making it a single cell layer thick. 
Transitional epithilium is ALWAYS found where?
Lining hollow organs
All of our GI tract is what kind of epithelial tissue?
Columnar simple 
Microvilli and cilia serve what purpose as extensions of epithelial tissue?
They both greatly increase surface area for absorption 
What type of connective tissue is specifically noted as "easily ripped?"
Areolar connective tissue
Which is more abundant in blood, red blood cells or white blood cells? 
There are far more red blood cells than white blood cells in any given sample of blood (42% RBC; 2% WBC)
What are platelets?
Cytoplasmic chunks which contribute to some kinds of clotting
What provides nutrients to the cells that create cartilage?
The perichondrium 
What happens as chondroblasts generate a greater amount of matrix between them and mature deeper into the cartilage?
The mature chondroblast becomes less effective as it is far away from the perichondrium which supplies it with nutrients. 
Some bones in baby's start out as entirely cartilage, how do they become actual bone?
Their bones develop as osteoblasts battle chondroclasts. As cartilage is broken down, perichondrium is signalled to penetrate the tissue w/ capillaries to vascularize the bone tissue.
What is the periosteum? What does it help do?
The new name given to the perichondrium once bone tissue makes its way all the way to the outer lining.
it helps to signal the stop of bone growth.
What is ossification? When does it start? Where does it start in long bones?
The process by which cartilage structures are transformed into bone. It begins when signalled by sex hormones in all animals. It starts in the shaft of long bones and moves outward toward the knobs on bone ends. 
What is synovial fluid?
The fluid makeup of a cushioning plate in place for protecting a joint from damage each time the joint flexes.
What are the important characteristics of skeletal muscle?
Striated, Very long cells, Attached to bone, voluntary, nuclei are laterally placed (off to one side), more than one nucei
What are the important characteristics of cardiac muscle?
Striated, highly organized, generate their own electrical impulse (autonomous), cells are Y-shaped, intercalated discs serve as direct electrical connections between adjacent cells. 
What are the important characteristics of smooth muscle?
Primitive muscle type, Mostly line the gut, contract and relax slowly in alternating patterns.