The Nineteenth Century

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The Nineteenth Century

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Beethoven's roots were 
Beethoven was a student of
what is the symphony that goes DUN DUN DUN DUN 
Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 in C Minor 
fast, rushing movement in triple meter in the basic minuet-trio form ABA
what did Beethoven replace the traditional minuet with
two middle pitches of the bridge theme are isolated and echoed between high wind instruments and lower strings
Beethoven's years
who named the Romantics
what dominated the presentation of music in the 19th century
concert hall and opera house 
german song
rhythm is handled flexibly; the meter itself may waver, or else the beat is maintained strictly in the accompaniment while the melody is played or sung slightly out of phase with it. improvised rhythmically
describe romantic melody
more irregular in rhythm and phrase structure, more spontaneous, range more widely than the orderly, restrained tunes of the classical era, more emotional effusive and demonstrative
describe romantic harmony
great technical advances, go hand in hand with melody to bring out emotionality
style that liberally employs all twelve notes of the chromatic scale- expand the expressive range of both their melodies and their harmony
describe Romantic tone color
new combinations of instruments, blended orchestra sound, instruments went through major technical developments 
what is program music
instrumental music written in association witha poem, a story, or some other literary source
what's a nocturne
type of program music that attemps to capture the general flavor of a mood with an extramusical condition, concept, or personality
pieces lasting only a few minutes or less- convey a particularly pointed emotion, momentary and undeveloped
what's an importnat general principle developed by Romantic composers
thematic unity, tendency to maintain some of the same thematic material throughough the work
difference between classical variation form and romantic variation
theme is much more fragmentary than a tune and the new versions of the theme appear at irregular intervals
thematic transformation
short themes are freely varied at relatively wide and unpredictable intervals of time
particular type of German song that evolved in the late 18th century and flourished in the 19th
accompaniment of lied
a lied is nearly always accompanied by piano alone
poetry of lied
text of a lied is usually a Romantic poem
mood of lied 
intimate... composers intended lieder for the intimacy of a living room
earliest and great master of the lied
Franz Schubert
who wrote the poem of the Erlking
Johann Wolfgag von Goethe
song with later stanzas with different or modified music. 
song that repeats the same music over and over for all its stanzas
song cycle
group of songs associated by a common poetic theme or an actual story
Name Schubert's two great song cycles
Die schone Mullerin (The Fair Maid of the Mill) and Winterreise (Winter Journey)
advantage of song cycle
extended lied into larger impressive unit- individual songs can be sung separately as well as in sequence with the rest of the cycle
Schumann's famous song cycle
Whose wife was a great piano virtuoso
Robert Schumann- Clara Schumann
name some simple genre titles for character pieces for piano that Chopin preferred
nocturne, waltz, scherzo, etude
what's a character piece
short Romantic piano pieces
what did Schubert prefer for his character pieces
descriptive titles
concert overture
never intended to be followed by a stage play or an opera, not intended for the theater
what did Hector Berlioz write
overtures to literary works of various kinds- plays, long poems, novels etc
writer of best known and best loved concert overtures
Felix Mendelssohn
program symphonies
entire symphonies with programs spelle dout movement by movement 
idee fixe
obsession- single theme recur in all the movements as a representation of the musician's beloved
who was the greatest of Italian opera composer and dominant figure in 19th century opera houses?
Giuseppe Verdi
what was Verdi most committed to in his operas?
human voice
what was Rossini's famous opera buffa
Barber of Seville
bel canto opera
serious operas- glorification of beautiful singing
who was the most refined of the three early bel canto composers
Vincenzo Bellini
who was the founder of German Romantic opera
Carl Maria von Weber
who dominated Italian bel canto opera after Rossini's sudden retirement?
Gaetano Donizetti
Who wrote Rigoletto
Giuseppe Verdi
Start of Romantic opera
what was the source of the Verdi's opera Rigoletto
a play by Victor Hugo (The King Amuses Himself)
center of musical life in Italy
Milan's opera house, La Scala
whose name became a patriotic acronym for the popular choice of king during the Italian revolution
what did Verdi do after he retire
fine country estate near his birthplace and spent his later years hunting and raising livestock
when did Verdi retire
after the premiere of Aida in Cairo, Egypt
when did Verdi write his two greatest operas- Othello and Falstaff
after his publisher coaxed him out of retirement 
who developed a special operative technique and what was it
Wagner; guiding motive- leitmotiv: musical motive associated with some person, thing, idea, or symbol in the drama
what word did Wagner coin
gesamtkunstwek- total work of art
who was the main italian opera composer after Verdi that is said to have brought an end to the great tradition of italian romantic opera
Giacomo Puccini
what did Puccini specialize in
intimate portraits of helpless women in hopeless situations
there was a move toward _____ in opera at the end of the 19th century
symphonic poems 
one-movement orchestral composition with a program in a free musical form
who composed the symphonic poems
Franz Liszt
name some of Liszt's symphonic poems
Hamlet, Orpheus, Prometheus, Les Preludes
Who wrote the overture-fantasy Romeo and Juliet
Was Tchaikovsky a nationalist?
no. although his peices may sometimes sound Russian, he was not as devoted a nationalist as other major Russian composers- he was a international composer- concert halls around the world
who was Tchaikovsky's patron
wealthy reclusive widow named Nadezhda von Meck- never met
What was the close group of five Russian nationalist composers
kuchka- Mighty Five
which German composer turned back to the classicism of the Viennese masters
Johannes Brahms
Did Brahms compose gradiose works
no- the only typical romantic genre he cultivated was the miniature- lied and charactersistic piano piece- never philosophical program symphonies or mythological operas
who was the Romantic nostalgia- explain
Mahler- ambivalent about Romantic traiditon although he embraced all of it rather than Brahm, huge programs of symphonies- uneasy quality to his music that sets it apart from other late Romantic music- exaggerations were deliberate and self-conscious- distortion etc
Theater an de Wein
new concert hall in center of city- The first public performance of Beethoven’s newest symphony
Symphony No. 3
The Eroica Symphony 
Went to Vienna to study with Haydn in 1793
When did Beethoven start losing his hearing
As early as 1800 near age of 30
What did Beethoven write during his retreat in 1802
Heiligenstadt Testament
What form is Symphony No.5 in C Minor in
-        Double Variation Form
-        Double Variation Form
o   second, non-varied theme is interpolated within the first theme’s variation
-        Beethoven’s Form
o   Five sections followed by a coda
o   Each section contains at least one of the themes and possibly cadences and transitions as well
  Beethoven’s Form
o   First two sections each contain all of the main materials
Third movement of Symphony No.5 in C Minor
o   A scherzo replaces the minuet of the earlier classical era
Formally like a minuet, but emotionally much more intense
fourth movement of Symphony No.5 in C Minor
o   Standard sonata form with 4 themes
Beethoven’s Third Period
-        Music loses some of its heroic nature and urgency
-        Tends to be highly abstractive, introspective, and oddly fragmented
Name of Beethoven's huge mass
Missa Solemnis
Beethoven's focus
o   Piano sonata and string quartets 
Beethoven's -        String Quartet, Op. 135
o   One of his last compositions, o  performed not during his lifetime but after his death o   Scherzo movement
-        During _____ last years, Europe was changing from Classical era to Romanticism era
Rossini, Wagner
opera composers
o   instrumental music and lieder
Chopin: Liszt
o   piano music
piano music and lieder
orchestral music
ballet and instrumental music 
PLURAL of lied
o   Erlkonig
-        Franz Schubert
o   The Odeon
opera house where Harriet Smithson played Ophelia in Hamlet
Hector Berlioz's loveeeee
Harriet Smithson
Marie (Camille) Moke 
Hector Berlioz's first wife 
Marie Recio Berlioz 
Hector Berlioz's mistress when he was married to Harriet Smithson
The Dies Irae
Gregorian Chant “Day of Wrath”
Col Legno
using the wood of the bow instead of the hair 
Sul Ponticello 
(bowing on the bridge of a string instrument) with bass trill 
Wind Glissando
·        Developed many orchestral effects- found many weird sounds with instruments
Hector Berlioz
former law student 
Robert Schumann
well established musical journalist -Particularly good about identifying promising new compositional talent  
 Robert Schumann
who were the famous artists that Schumann discovered 
Chopin and Brahms
Schumann ruined his piano-playing career with a gizmo 
o   called a chiroplast
§  Wound up with a nearly useless left hand middle finger 
Composer that quit
Gioachino Rossini
o   Tended to recycle bits and pieces of failed shows into later ones- especially overtures 
Gioachino Rossini
o   Bel canto opera
§  Singing and singers were everything
§  Meant to be entertaining and had no message
Bel canto opera- Arias
§  Arias consisted of two parts
n  Cavatina- slow and lyric shows off singer’s ability to sustain a line
n  Cabaletta- showy and fast- shows off the singer’s virtuosity 
§  Total failure at its premiere 1816
o   The Barber of Seville- Gioachino Rossini
o   Also retired from composing but went back to it later and produced two supreme masterpieces in his old page
-        Giusepe Verdi 
·        Specialty of Schumann
Character Piece for Piano
Schumann's Carnaval:Three selections
Eusebius, Florestan, Chiarina
Carnival Eusebius
The dreamy, poetic side
Carnival Florestan
Impetuous and dynamic
Carnival Chiarina
A portait of teenaged Clara Wieck
sotto voce
under voice
Schumann’s Dichterliebe
A Poet's Love -love to love lost -unrequited love :'[
Attempted suicide and stuff
Schumann’s bipolar disorder
Saw himself as a classicist. His pieces were all abstract
Chopin’s Nocturnes form
The form is usually a simple A-B-A
Blood vessel bursting in his brain from working too hard
Felix Mendelssohn
A Midsummer Night’s Dream
Felix Mendelssohn
Established the model of the supervirtuoso celebrity performer
Franz Liszt
became a monk..
Franz Liszt
composer of extremes
Gustav Mahler
Very bitterly criticized when it first came out Random- funeral march- happy dance music- art song- funeral march 
Symphony No.1 Funeral March
It was based on a children's song 
Mahler's Symphony No.1 Funeral March
first composer to talk to us 
had all the techniques of different composers 
everyone expected him to be the next Beethoven and wanted him to write a symphony
Sometimes said to be indifferent to the orchestra- indifferent to gratuitous effects
destroyed any second rate works and unfinished pieces  cared about the quality of his published music 
He really liked cymbals.
Tended to “recycle” bits and pieces of failed shows into later ones.
Legendary for his laziness 
Typical opera buffa finale, with massive confusion and everybody onstage
Who was Rigoletto
the court jester to the Duke of Mantua
David Belasco
native San Franciscan who became one of the giants of the Broadway stage
They wrote two operas together: Madama Butterfly and The Girl of the Golden West,