Sociology Test

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Sociology Test

Suny Albany Sociology 115 Test

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4 types of capital?
economic (wealth), social (interpersonal connections), cultural (knowledge of values and beliefs), human (skills, qualities and characteristics)
McDonaldization of society?
standardizing every aspect of society to be most efficient and uniform 
what is social control?
Societies have formal and informal means to enforce norms  nFormal – laws, police, judicial system, etc. nInformal – norms, sanctions, decorum, etc
what is deviance?
a violation of societal norms. what is deviant to some is not deviant to others
what is a stigma?
a blemish on ones identity. a stigma is a violation of norms of appearance and ability 
what is differential association theory?
learn to deviate by those we associate with in our lives (family/friends) (50% of people in prison also have a family member thats committed a crime)
what is the control theory?
we all want to commit deviant acts but don't because of controls. the stronger the control the less likely deviance is to occur 
according to durkheim, why is deviance functional?
it affirms moral boundaries, promotes social unity, promotes social change 
what is the strain theory?
we are all socialized to want certain cultural goals but we don't all have the means to obtain them. people develop a sense of anomie (normlessness)
what are the five responses to strain?
conformity, innovator (wants to achieve cultural goals but uses illegitimate methods), ritualism (given up on achieving cultural goals but still clings to conventional means of conduct), retreatism (rejects cultural goals and means to obtain them), rebellionism (rejects cultural goals and tries to replace them with own goals)
what is the difference between street crime and white collar crime?
those who have wealth and power often bypass the law while others suffer full consequences 
illegitimate opportunity structure
opportunities for crimes that are woven into the texture of life
institutionalized means
approved ways of reaching cultural goals
medicalization of deviance 
to make deviance a medical matter, a symptom of some underlying illness that needs to be treated by a physician 
negative sanction
an expression of disapproval for break a norm. ranging from an informal reaction (a frown) to a formal reaction (a prison sentence)
positive sanction
a reward or positive reaction for following norms. ranging from a frown to a material reward 
social order 
a groups usual and customary social arrangements, on which members depend and base their lives on
what is general reciprocity 
occurs when one person shares goods or labor with another without expecting anything in return. it is "reciprocal" because of the giver's feeling of satisfaction
primary groups
close, intimate relationships that shape your ideas about the world and yourself
secondary groups 
impersonal, more formal associations based on a common goal or interest 
IN groups VS OUT groups 
in groups serve as examples of what you are and should be; out groups do the opposite 
what are bureaucracies  
A particular administrative structure organized according to rational principles---to accomplish a task in the most effective way. 
what are the five characteristics of a bureaucracy?
clear cut levels (hierarchy), division of labor, written rules, written communication and records, impersonality 
why did weber say bureaucracies would become an iron cage? 
Weber saw bureaucracy removing the individual from its humanity as the rules and routines substitute tradition and customs-corporations become "people"-when one goal is accomplished, another is created
Marx's term for workers' lack of connection to the product of their labor; cause  by their being assigned repetitive tasks on a small part of a product- which leads to a sense of powerlessness and normlessness
goal displacement 
an organization replacing old goals with new ones. (goal replacement)
a narrowing of thought by a group of people, leading to the perception that there is only one correct course of action, in which to even suggest alternatives becomes a sign of disloyalty 
the iron law of oligarchy 
Robert Michels' term for the tendency of formal organizations to be dominated by a small, self-perpetuating elite 
reference group
a group whose standards we refer to as we evaluate ourselves 
2 definitions of power
Power has been defined on many occasions as the capacity of one individual or group to manipulate the actions of others (Classical School) or the ability of one individual or group to shape meanings and values (Postmodern school)
the institutionalized arrangement of power relationships (does not require force)
required in order for power to transform into authority 
žA set of doctrines or beliefs that form the basis of a political, economic, or other systems 
žRefers to the predominant influence, as of a state, region, or group, over another or others. 
class consciousness 
Marx's term for awareness of a common identity based on one's position in the means of production
contradictory class locations
Erik Wright's term for a position in the class structure that generates contradictory interests 
exchange mobility
about the same numbers of people moving up and down the social class ladder, such that, on balance, the social class system shows little change 
intergenerational mobility 
the change that family members make in social class from one generation to the next 
poverty line
the official measure of poverty; calculated to include incomes that are less than 3 times a low cost food budget 
power elite 
C. Wright Mills' term for the top people in US corporations, military, and politics who make the nation's major decisions 
social class
according to Weber, a large group of people who rank close with one another in wealth, prestige, and power; according to Marx, one of two groups: capitalists who own the means of production or workers who sell their labor
structural mobility 
movement up or down the social class ladder that is due to changes in the structure of society, not individual efforts 
group of people for whom poverty persists year after year and across generations 
3 types of social stratification
slavery (free class and a slave class), caste (rigid; social mobility not common), class (US system; boundaries are fluid)
functionalist perspective of stratification 
all positions must be filled, some are more important than others, more qualified positions should be filled by more qualified people, greater rewards must be offered to entice qualified people 
conflict perspective of stratification 
no society can exist unless it's organized, leadership requires inequalities of power, human nature is self centered 
wealth includes:
income, inheritance, property, investments 
conspicuous consumption 
consumer goods and leisure activities serve as status symbols "good taste" "high culture"
ža socially constructed distinction between groups based on perceived biological characteristics 
žrefers to groups that share a perceived cultural background; common ancestry, religion, foods, geographical origin, etc. 
minority group 
people singled out for unequal treatment by the dominant group
discrimination VS prejudice 
discrimination is an action, prejudice is an attitude