Sociology Test 1 - People

28 cards
Sociology Test 1 - People

Ch 1 - 4  

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›         Jane Addams
o       Leader in the settlement house movement o       Only practicing sociologist to win Nobel Peace Prize o       Used skills as a research sociologist to develop community projects that assisted people in need
›         Auguste Comte
o       First coined the term “sociology” as the scientific study of society based on positivism
›         Alexis de Tocqueville
o       A Frenchman o       Analyzed US democratic culture & society in Democracy in America
›         W.E. B. Du Bois
o       First black scholar to receive a Ph.D in sociology from Harvard o       Prominent black scholar & co-founder of the NAACP o       Devoted life work to addressing the racial divisiveness in US society
Emile Durkheim
o       Viewed society as an entity larger than the sum of its parts (society sui generis) o       Work focused on how public rituals & belief systems created social solidarity & how a social system could be known through the discovery & analysis of social facts
›         Harriett Martineau
o       British o       Analyzed American social customs in Society in America o       Wrote one of the first sociologist methods books on the research method called participant observation (How to Observe Manners & Morals)
›         Karl Marx
o       Considered society to be shaped by economic forces o       Analyzed capitalism as a system of class relationships
›         C. Wright Mills
o       Said the task of sociology is to employ the sociological perspective to understand how issues are shaped by social structure
›         Robert Park
o       Key founder of sociology o       Cities organized in concentric circles o       The influence of race & class on design of cities  
›         Max Weber
o       Developed a multidimensional analysis of society which integrated political, economic & cultural aspects o       Developed the concept of Verstehen o       Defined social action as a behavior to which people give meaning
›         Ida B. Wells-Barnett
o       Early sociologist widely noted for her work in the anti-lynching movement o       Born a slave, learned to read & write at Rust College, a school established for freed slaves o       Received teaching credentials at Fisk University o       Wrote numerous essays on the status of African Americans in the US o       Was an active crusader against lynching & for women’s rights, including the right to vote
›         William Graham Sumner
o       Identified only two types of norms: folkways & mores
›         Mitch Dunier
o       (in Sidewalk) o       Wanted to know how homeless people lived & used participant observation
›         Nancy Chodorow
o       Used psychoanalytic theory to explain how the asymmetrical division of labor within a family, by gender, shapes personalities
›         Charles Horton Cooley
o       Postulated the looking-glass self to explain how a person’s conception of self arises through reflection about one’s relationship with others
›         Erik Erikson
o       Said the central task of adolescence is the formation of a consistent identity
›         Sigmund Freud
o       Developed the psychoanalytic theory which sees the human identity as relatively fixed at an early age in a process greatly influenced by one’s family o       Saw the development of the social identity (ego) as an unconscious process developed from dynamic tensions between strong instinctual impulses (id) & the social standards of society (superego)
›         Carol Gilligan
o       Found that women’s moral judgments were more contextual & relational than men’s
›         Lawrence Kohlberg
o       Described moral development occurring in three stages: preconventional, conventional, & postconventional based on research with men
›         George Herbert Mead
o       Said social roles are the basis of all social interaction o       Taking the role of the other, imitation stage, play stage, & game stage
›         Jean Piaget
o       Argued that the human mind organizes experience into mental categories (schema), which are modified & developed as social experiences accumulate o       Proposed that children go through distinct stages of cognitive development as they learn the basic rules of reasoning: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, & formal operational
›         Robert Merton
o       Functionalist o       Manifest function – intended o       Latent function – unintended o       Dysfunctions – negative
›         Charles Darwin
o       Identified the process of evolution o       Social Darwinists – “survival of the fittest” driving force of social evolution o       Organism evolves from simple to complex
›         Talcott Parsons
o       Functionalist o       All parts of a social system are interrelated o       Different parts have different basic functions
›         Georg Simmel
o       Explained critical distance – ability to detach from a situation o       Role of strangers inside & outside of social groups o       Strangers can see social structure of a group more readily
›         Sir Frances Bacon
o       British philosopher o       Defined & elaborated on the scientific method
›         Edward Sapir
o       Writings in 1920s o       Language central in determining social thought o       Language forces people to perceive the world in certain terms
›         Benjamin Whorf
o       Writings in 1950s o       Sapir’s student o       Language central in determining social thought o       Language forces people to perceive the world in certain terms