Sociology Midterm Exam

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Soci Midterm

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the study of human socitey 
sociological imagination
ability to connect the most basic intimate aspects of an individuals life to seemlinglu impersonal and remot historical forces
social institutions
group of social positions connected by social relations performing a social role any institution in a society that works to socialize the group or ppl within
social idenity
individuals define themselves in relationsjop to groups wth which they affiliate
positivism arose out of need to make sense of the social order in a time of declining religous authorityStages-theological stagemetaphysical stage:why things are the way they are -scientific stagewe can convience we could understand how social institutions work 
harriet martineau
transle comte to englishway we educate kidsto government
Karl Marx
marxist conflict theoryhistorical materialism: conflict between classes drove social change throughout historycommunism
max weber
belief marx went 2 fare to coin it just a cause and affect-religon also laid the ground workverstehen: social world through experience
interpretive sociology
study of social meaning
division of labor: degree to which jobs are specialized positivist sociology: strain within socioloy that believes the social world can be described and predicted relationships
sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonably expect life to be predictable;to little social regulation
Jane adamsWEB Dubios
Adams: hull house link ideas of university to the poor through full service examsblack and anomie
various social instituation and processes in society exis to serve some important fuction to keep socoety running
conflict theory
conflict promotes change
feminist theory
equality between men and women challenging conventional wisdom
symbolic interactionism
shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivation behind peoples actions
questioning of notion of progress and history and the replacement of narrative within pastiche and multipe pehaps even conflicting edentities resulting from disjointed affliations
social construction
instutionalized entity or artifact in system invented or constricted by participants in a paricular culture or society tat exists because ppl agree to behave as if it exist
showing how certain social phenomena are arbitrary and devised by social actos with varying degrees of power
midrange theory
change in 1 facto results in a corresponding change in another
research method
approaches and methods that go with trying to find an answer to a question
quantitave methodsqualititave
somethings that can be assigned a numeric value:eliminating al other possibilites through their study deisng to state with some certainty that one condition causes another
something that can not be assigned a number value:social processes rule out others
allows us to show
deductive appach
starts with a theory forms  a hypothsis and tests
inductive appraoch
obersvation and creates a theory
correlation or association
simulanous varition in to variables
natural experiment
event that affects is causing a certain outcome
time order
chrikigy or sequence of events
alternative explaations
plausaible stories that could explain our data but doesn't fit with central hypothesis
false or misleadering 
reversw causality
A is not causing B, B is causing A 
assigning a precise methode for measuring a term being examined for use in a particular study
Null hyptohsis
Ho: relationship propsed between two ariables does not exist 
alternative hypothesis
it does exist
moderating variables 
stuff that affects independent and dependent
mediating variables
variable that is there but does not affect indp. or dep.
it is measuring wut should be measured
consistant results each time
extent to which we can claim or findings inform us about a group large than the one we studies 
how much does tester have an affect on those being tested
populationsample censue
entire grouprepresntive of pop. a sbsetsample that atempt to estimate the size of the entire population
case study
in-depth look a phenimenon that is happening in a social stting
feminist metholodology
treat omen experences as a legtimate emprical and theortical resourse that promote social science for women for a specific half of the public and that take into account the researcher as much as the overt subject matter
particpant observation
qualitivae reseach seeks to observe social actions in practice
repeated cross sectinal survey
smaples new wave represenice group each survey
panel survey
tracks sme respondents over time
historical methods
collects data from written report newspaper, articles, jornals, diaries, artwork, and other artifacts to stody
compartive research
two entities similar...but 1 thing is different what makes it different
audit study
specific type of experimental method in which a pair of comparale ppl are observed in a specific situation to see if they fare differently
content analusis
analysis of strutire of a communication mainifest:something that yo can seelatent: stuff u cant see
ethics of studies
do no harminformed consent voultary participationprotected populations: approval to st
public sociology
seek to engage a on academic audience for a normative productive end