Sociology Exam 1

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the view that social researchers should strive for subjectivity as they worked to represent social processes, cultural notrms, and societal values
conflict theory
a theory that looks at society as a competition for limited recources
dynamic equilibium 
a stable state in which all parts of a healthy society are working together properly
social patterns that have undesirable consequences for the operation of society
the process of simultaneously analyzing the behavior of an individual and the society that shapes that behavior 
a theoretical approach that sees society as a structrue with interrelated parts desigened to meet te biological and social needs of individual that make up that society
the part a recurrent activity plays in the social life as a whole and the contribution it makes to  structural continuity
 grand theories
attempts to explain large-scale relationships and anwwer fundamental questions such as why societeis form and why they change
latent functions 
the unrecognized or unintended consequences of a social process
a wide-scale view of the role of social structures within society
manifest  functions 
sought sonsequences of a social process
micro-level theories
the study of specifice relationsihps between individuals or small groups
philosophical and theortical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate theories, generalizations, and the experiments performed in support of them
the scientific study of social patterns
qualitiative sociology
in-depth interviews, focus groups, and/or analysis of content sources as the source of its data
quantitative sociology
statistical methods such as surveys with large numbers of participants
social facts
the laws, morals, values, religious beliefs, customs, fashions, rituals, and all of the cultural rule that govern social life
social solidarity
the social ties the bind a group of people together such as kinship, shared location, religion 
sociological imagination
the ability to understand how your own past relates to that of other people, as well as to history in general and societal strucutres in particular 
is the systimatic study of society and social interatcion 
symbolic interactionism
a theoretical perspective through which scholars examine the relationship of individuals within their society by studying their communication (language and symbols)
a proposed explaination about social interactions or society
case study
in-depth analysis of a single event, situation, or individual
code of ethics
a set of guidelines that the American Sociological Association has established to foster ethnical research and professionally responsible scholarship in sociology
content analysis
applying a systematic approach to record and value information gleaned from secondary data as it relates to the study at hand
control group
an experimental group that is not exposed to the independent variable
when a change in one variable coincides with a change in another variable, but oes not necessarily indication caustion
dependent variables
changed by other variables
empirical evidence
evidence corrobroated by direct expericence and/or observation
observing a complete social setting and all that it entails
the testing of a hypothesis under controlled conditions 
field research 
gathering data from a natural environment without doing a lab experiment or survey
Hawthorne effect
when study subjects behave in a certain manner due to their awarenes of being obsverved by a researcher
an educated guess with predicted outcome about the relationship between two or more variables
independent variables
cause changes in dependent variables
interpretive framework
as socioligical research approach that seeks in-depth understanding of a topic or subject through observation or interaction; the approach is not based on hypothesis testing
a one-on-one conversation between the researcher and the subject
literature review
a scholory research step that entails identifying and studying all existing studies on a topic to create a basis for new research
nonreactive research
using secondary data, does not include direct contact with subjects and will not alter or influcence people's behaviors
operational definitions
specific explanations of abstract concepts that a researcher plans to study
participant observation
when a researcher immerses herself in a group or social setting in order to make observations from an "insider" perspective 
a defined group serving as the subject of study
primary data
data that are collected directly from firsthand experience 
qualitative data
comprise information that is subjective and often based on what is seen in a nutural setting
quantitative data 
represent research collected in numerical form that can be counted
random sample
a study's participants being andomly selected to serve as a represntation of a larger population
a measure of a study's consistency that considers how likely results are to be replicated if a study is reproduced 
research design
a detailed, systematic method for conducting research and obtaining data
small, manageable number of subjects that represent the population
scientific method
an established scholarly research method that involves asking a question, researching existing sources, forming a hypothesis, designing and conducting a study, and drawing conclusions
secondary data analysis 
using data collected by other but applying new interpretations
collect data from subjects who repond to a series of questions about behaviors and opinions, often in the form of a questionnaire
the degree to which a sociological measure accurately refelcts the topic of study
value neutrality 
a practice of remaining impartial, without bias or judgement during the course of a study and in publishing results
cultural imperialism
the deliberate imposition of one's own culutal values on another culture
cultural relativism
the practice of assesing a culture by its own standards, and not in comparison to another culture
cultural universals
the patterns or traits that are globally common to all societies
culture lag
the gap of time between the introduction of material culture and nonmaterial culture's acceptance of it
culture shock
an experience of personal disorientation when confronted with an unfamiliar way of life
shared beliefs, values, and practices
the spread of material and nonmaterial culture from one culture to another
things and ideas found from what already exists
to evaluate another culture according to the standards of one's own culture
direct appropriate behavior in the day-to-day practices and expressons of a culture
formal norms
established, written rules
the intergration of international reade and finance markets
high culture
the cultural patters of a society's elite
ideal culture
consists of the standars a society would like to embrace and live up to
informal norms
casual behaviors that are generally and widely conformed to
new objects or ideas introduced to culture for the first time
a combinationof pieces of existing reality into new forms 
a symbolic system of communication
material culture
the objects or belongings of a group of people
the moral views and principles of a group
nonmaterial culture
the ideas, attitudes, and beliefs of a society
the visible and invisible rules of conducts through wich societies are structured 
popular culture
mainstream, widespread patterns among a society's population
real culture
the way a society really is based on what actually occurs and exists
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
people understand the world based on their form of language 
a way to authorize of formally disapprove of certain behaviors 
social control
a way to encourage confomity to cultural norms
people who live in a definable community and who share a culture
groups that shrare a specific identification, aprart from a society's majority, even as the memebers exist within a larger society
gestures of objects that have meanings associated with them that are recognized by people who share a culture
a culture's standard for dicerning what is good and just in society
a belief that another culture is superior to one's own
achieved status
a status a person chooses, such as a level of education or income
agricultural societies 
societies that rely on famring as a way of life
an individual's isolation from his society, his work, and his sense of self
a situation in which society no longer has the support of a firm collective consciousnesss
ascribed status
the status outside of an individual's control, such as sex or race
the owners of the means of production in a society
class consiousness
awareness of one's rank in society
collective conscience
the communial beliefs, morals, and attitudes of a society
false consciousness
a person's beliefs and ideology are in conflisct with her best intersts
feudal societies
societies that operate on a strict hierarchial system of power based around land
the idea that society is constructed by us and those before us, and it is followed like a habit
horticultural societies
societies based around the cultivation of plants
hunter-gatherer societies
societies that depend on hunting wild animals and gathering uncultivated plants for survival
industrial societies
societies characterized by a reliance on mechanized labor to create material goods
information societies
societies based on the production of nonmaterial goods and services
the act of implanting a convention or norm into society 
iron cage
a situation in whicn an individual is trapped by social institutions
looking-glass self
our reflection of how we think we appear to others
mechanical solidarity
a type of social order maintained by the sollective consicousness of a culture
organic solidarity
a type of social order based around an acceptance of exonomic and social differences
pastorial societies
societies based around the domestication of animals
the laborers in a society 
a belief that modern society should be built around  logic and efficientcy rather than morality or tradition
role conflict
when one or more of an individual's roles clash
role performance
the expression of a role
role strain
stress that occurs when too much is required of a single role
an array of roles attached to a particular status
patterns of behavior that are representative of a person's social status
self-fulfilling prophecy
an idea that becomes true when acted upon
social integration
how strongly a person is connected to his or her social group
the responsibilities and benefits that a person experiences according to their rand and role in society
Thomas theorem
how a subjective reality can drive events to develop in accordance with that reality, despite being originally upsupported by objective reality
anticipatory socialization
when we prepare for future life roles
degradation ceremony
the process by which new members of a total institution lose aspects of their old identity and are given new ones
generalized other
the common behavioral expectations of general society
hidden curriculum
the informal teching done in schools that socalizes children to social norms
moral development
the way people learn what is "good" and "bad"
the influence of our genetic makeups on self-development
the role that our social environment plays in self-development
peer group
a group made up of people who are similar  in age and social status and who share interests 
the process by which old behaviors are removed and nre behaviors are learned in their place
a person's distinct sense of identity as developted through social interaction
the process wherein people come to understand societal norms and expectation, to accept society'sbeliefs, and to be aware of societal values