Social Work Test Prep

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Piaget's Stages (ages)
Sensorimotor (birth - 2 yrs); Preoperational (2 - 7 yrs); Concrete Operational (7 - 11 yrs); Formal Operational (11+ yrs)
Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Devel (ages)
Oral (birth to 1 yr); Anal (1 - 3 yrs); Phallic (3 - 6 yrs); Latency (6 - 12 yrs); Genital (12+ yrs)
Erikson's Final Two Stages (ages)
Generativity v. Stagnation (mid-adulthood); Integrity v. Despair (old age)
Erikson's First Three Stages (ages)
Trust v. Mistrust (infancy); Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt (toddler); Initiative v. Guilt (early childhood);
Erikson Stages 4 - 6 (ages)
Industry v. Inferiority (school age); Identity v. Role Confusion (teens); Intimacy v. Isolation (yng adult)
Flight of Ideas (MSE)
Thoughts not associated by logic
Tangential Speech (MSE)
Answers don't follow question
Loose Associations (MSE)
Ideas slip off the track on to another which is obliquely related or unrelated.
Circumstantial Speech (MSE)
Speech very delayed at reaching its goal. Excessive long windedness/detail.
Mental Retardation (DSM)
IQ < or = 70; impaired functioning; onset before 18.
Rett's D/O (DSM)
Females only; head growth decel; lost coordination; social probs.
Pica (DSM)
Eating non-food (e.g., dirt)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (keywords)
Schemas; core beliefs; automatic thoughts; cognitive distortions; thought record; downward arrow;
Freud's Structural Personality Theory
Id (pleasure principle; primary process thinking); Ego (reality principle; secondary process thinking); Superego (ego ideal; conscience)
Object Relations Phases
Normal autism (1st month); Symbiotic (2 - 8 mos); Differentiation (7m - 2y); Integration/Rapproachment (2 - 3 yrs)
Id's drives out of conscious into unconsious
Retreat to earlier stage
Unacceptable needs/drives attributed to other
Reaction Formation
Express opposite of anxiety-forming instinct
Transfer instinct to less threatening target (e.g., angry at dad, mom yells at kid)
Impulses diverted into socially acceptable outlet (e.g., work, art)
Ignore personal relevance or deny existence of an anxiety-provoking impulse
Ascribe thoughts/bx of others to oneself.
Interpret own bx as rational/acceptable
Bx to undo effect of past action
Structural Family Therapy (keywords)
alignments; heirarchies; subsystems; boundaries; enmeshment; joining; mimesis; family map; enactment; reframing
Strategic Family Therapy (keywords)
social/problem/interaction/goal-setting stages; communication; interpersonal phenom; prob solving; directives; paradoxical ints;
Paradoxical Interventions
Milton Erickson/Strategic Family Therapy: restraning (don't change); positioning (exag sx); reframing
Existential Therapy (keywords)
death; isolation; freedom; meaninglessness; experience; phenomenology; Yalom; Franl
Person-Centered Therapy (keywords)
unconditional positive regard; accurate empathy; genuineness; dx = label; incongruence; Carl Rogers
Narrative Therapy (keywords)
ambiguous experience; externalizing; influence mapping; reauthoring; deconstruction
Gestalt Therapy (keywords)
awareness; Fritz Perls; boundary disturbances; "I" language; empty chair; here & now; body language; holistic
Boundary Disturbances (Gestalt)
Introjection (swallow w/out understanding); Projection (disowning self); Retroflection (eg anger inward); Confluence (bound probs)
Additive Empathy
Reflect expressed and implied content (e.g. “I have the impression that ...”)
Reciprocal Empathy
Reflection - accurate understanding, non-additive.
Reflection Errors (4)
Timing (over/under reflection); Stereotyping (SW=robot); Depth (+/-); Language (eg slang)
Word Salad
Jumble of incoherent speech
Invented words
Speech driven by word sounds (e.g., rhyming or alliteration).
Formation of false memories, perceptions, or beliefs--usu. to cover memory loss (Alzheimer's or blackouts).
Proxemics v. Kenesics v. Paralanguage
Proxemics = spatial bx; Kinesics = movement; Para = nonverbal vocal cues (e.g. vol, speed, intonation)
Ideas of reference
Delusional belief that casual events, people's remarks, etc. are referring to oneself when, in fact, they are not (eg TV, newspaper)
Wechsler (testing)
Generates an IQ score - WAIS (16+); WISC (6 - 16); WPPSI (@3- @7)
Projective Tests
Interpretive/subjective personality tests (e.g., Rorschach, DAP (draw a person), sand tray, HTP (tree/house/person), sentence completion
Commonly Used Intelligence Tests
WAIS, WISC, Vineland, Stanford-Binet, and elements of the MSE
Anorexia v. Bulimia (DSM Diff)
A.N. = low weight; psychotic flavor (re body); can include purge B.N. = binge/purge; normal weight
OCD v. OCPD (DSM Diff)
OCD = ego dystonic; anxiety driven; rituals/obsessions; OCPD = ego syntonic; rigid; no obses/compuls. Dx's can coexist (eg, rigid hoarding)
Factitious D/O v. Malingering v. Somatoform D/O (DSM DIff)
Factitious = sick role Malingering = for goal (e.g., SSI) Somatoform = not faking
Personality Disorders (by cluster)
A ("weird"): Paranoid, Schizoid, Schizotypal B ("wild"): Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, Narc. C ("wimp"): Avoidant, Dependent, OCPD
Schizoid PD
Loner; minimal rxs; prefers solitude; no pleasure or desire for social interaction; cold; detached
Schizotypal PD
Eccentric/wild appearance & bx; odd beliefs (magical thinking, ideas of ref, so pho); short rxs; suspicious; not psychotic
Paranoid PD
Distrust and suspiciousness; no trust; holds grudges; questions mate's fidelity; non-delusional
Antisocial PD
Violates rights of others; present since age 15; fights; irresponsibility; deceitfulness; lack of remorse
Borderline PD
Probs w/ rx, self-image, affect, impulsivity; idealize/devalue; abandonment fear; self-injurious; feelings of emptiness
Histrionic PD
High emo, attention seeking; inappropriate seductiveness; use of appearance; impressionistic speech; shifting emo; quick rx
Narcissistic PD
Grandiose, lack of empathy, hypersensitivity to eval; entitlement; exploitive; envious; fantasies of success/power/perfect love
Avoidant PD
Social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, hypersensitivity to eval; min rxs; poor self-image; fear of embarrassment
Dependent PD
Submissive, clinging, fear of separation; prob w/ solo decisions; no responsibility for self; 0 confidence; helplessness; probs disagreeing w/ others
Obsessive-Compulsive PD
Rigidity, perfectionism, control; preoc w/ rules, lists; stubborn, miserly, workaholic; moral/ethical inflexibility; problems throwing things out
Order of language acquisition
crying; cooing; echolalia; holophrastic speech; telegraphic speech; vocab growth; correct grammar; metalinguistics
Child's imitation of speech sounds (after cooing, before holophrastic speech)
Holophrastic Speech
Child expresses sentence meaning with single word (e.g., "milk!")
Telegraphic Speech
Two or more words in sentence (e.g., "Milk now!")
Kohlberg's First Level of Moral Devel (and substages)
Preconventional Morality (Punishment & Obdience Orientation); Instrumental Hedonism)
Kohlberg's Second Level of Moral Devel (and substages)
Conventional Morality (Good Boy/Good Girl Orientation; Law & Order Orientation)
Kohlberg's Third Level of Moral Devel (and substages)
Postconventional Morality (Morality of Contract, Individual Rights, and Democratically Accepted Laws; Morality of Individual Principles of Conscience)
Suicide Risk Factors
Hx of attempts; old age; males 70+, females 15-24; hopelessness; hx depression; caucasian; native am 15-19; loss; recent lifting of dep sx
Four levels of acculturation (Berry)
Integration (+/+ new culture/o.g. culture); assimilation (+/-); separation (-/+); marginalization (-/-)