Social Deviance Test 1

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1st Test For Social Deviance

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rule for appropriate behavior
behavior expected of certain status/ position
types of sanctions
formal: fine, jail, expulsion, etc informal: ridicule, gossip Neg: punishment Pos: reward
3 forms of norms
mores: govern serious behavior folkways: norms govern mundane conduct Laws: written and enforced by gov
Social Order
carried out by rules and norms NECESSARY for equilibrium in social relations an idealized concept, NEVER acheived
Characteristics of a norm
1)associated with roles 2) taught through socialization 3) accompanied by sanctions 4) tend to reflect cultures values 5)take a variety of forms
consequences of social order
too much leads to more probs no social order = chaos
3 types of variations in deviant behavior
- temporal -cultural -situtaional
4 ways to conceptualize deviance
1) absolutist definiton 2) Statistical definition 3) normative conception 4) Reactivist Conception
Absolutist Definition
certain actions qualify as deviant bc they have always been defined that way (Bible, Koran, etc)
Statistical Definition
behavior that is rare or strays from statistical average leads to confusion bc logically the minority is always considered deviant
Normative Conception
"old conception" deviant behavior violates a norm prob: there are so many norms, everyone can be considered deviant
Reactivist Conception
"new conception". deviant behavior is labeled that way. act = not important REACTION = important Probs: doesnt consider why, ignores norms
Moral Entrepreneurs
interest groups promote personal set of moral values in attempt to control social life
Argument in Defining Deviance Down- DP Moynihan
moral standards have been altered to accommodate amount of deviance overtime. More things have become "less serious". *Durkheim and Kai Erikson
Durkheim's ideas about crime
crime = normal phenomenon "society of saints" collective conscience
Collective Conscience
totality of beliefs and sentiments common to average citizens of same society -common morality
Kai Erikson's Wayward Puritan study
Mass. Bay Colony- "witches" group only has so many resources to deal w/ deviants and tries to reserve those resources
study of deviance in the academic community..
lower prestige field areas because 1) not clearly defined/vast topic 2) deviance - kinda bizarre (not always serious) 3)difficult to collect data 4) nuts, slut, and perverts
5) deviant - possible stigma
benefits and disadvantages of qualitative method
pros: deeper understanding, observe subtle comm, looks for meaning
cons: hard to interview deviants, etc
Strain theory
Robert Merton- deviant behavior repsonse to structural conditions (nurture)
goals-means gap
5 adaptations
5 adaptations to anomie
1) conformity 2) innonvation 3) Ritualism 4) Retreatism 5) Rebellion
conventional goals and means
accept goals, reject means
going through motion by means, no goals in sight
reject goals and means
alternative set of goals and means
SOcial Learnin theory
(integrated theory) deviance is LEARNED in context of primary groups
3 components
R2 = .48 (ron AKERS)
3 components of social learning theory
differntial association
differential reinforcement
differential association
socialized by grop of ppl who engage in deviance (techniques and mind set)
differential reinforcement
balance of actual and anticipated rewards
social (praise) and no -social (effects of drugs/alcohol)
attitudes and meanings that a person attatches to behavior
acceptable/ unacceptable
conflict theory
(richard quinney) class struggles occur in capitalist society
2 types of deviance (crimes):
1)crimes of domination and oppression
2)crimes of resistance and accommodation
crimes of domination and oppression
committed by capatalists to keep superiority
crimes of resistance and accomodation
offenses committed by working class as reaction to oppression
labeling theory
 (Howard Becker) nothing is inherent
ppl are labeled deviant
3 neg consequences
primary and secondary deviance
3 neg consequences of being labeled
1) restricted opportunities
2) Damaged Intrerpersonal relationships
3) Diminished self-concept
primary deviance
original norm violations. considered undetected by others.
detection can start labeling process
secondary deviance
committed as a result of the labeling process
"career deviance"
Social Bond Theory
"control theory"  (Travis Hirschi) R2 = .14
natural inclination to engage in deviant acts
4 elements
4 elements of social bond theory
Attatchment - (works with young) school, family, church
Commitment- (legit) (long-term) stakes in conformity
Involvement- (any given day) conventional activities
Belief- acceptance of societal rules
Akers criteria for judging a theory
1.personal beliefs 2. empirical validity 3. scope (R2) 4. parsimony (how clear) 5. testability
functions of deviance
1. strengthen the group (reactions) 2. highlights normss 3. catalyst for change 4. entertainment
medicalaization of deviance
deviance = medical problem. Bad -> Sick.
ex's: addictive behavior, eating disorder, ADHD/ADD, psychiatric, severe PMS
Assumptions of medical model
caused by physical/ biological defect
qualitative difference btwn deviants and normals
need treatment
diagnosed by symptoms
advantage of medical model
humanitarian benefits
less condemnation of deviants
disadvnatages of medical model
1) expert domination (medical social control)
2)individualizing social problems/ alleviates personal responsibilities)
3) political abuse 4) not an adversarial system
Thomas Szasz
myth of mental illness
causes lableling
its a psychosocial  deviation not a disease
The Rosenhan Study
fake patients admitted into mental hospital "hearing voices"
results: all but 1 admitted. nobody notices normal. average stay = 19days. released with schizophrenia in remission
criticisms of Rosenhan study
"logic in remission"
hearing voices called for no other action but to admit them