SOC: Exam 3

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SOC: Exam 3

*Race & Ethnicity *Gender Inequality *Work & The Economy

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Bill Gates @ 29: We'll hire women b/c we can pay them half & give them crap work
gender discrimination
why do men commit more frequent & harmful acts of agression against women than women against men
men have more social power
Morton tried to use science to show that Indians & Natiive Americans are peons... was used to justify
the 2 most important forms of domination & injustice: colonization & slavery
what has a big impcact on IQ & other standardized test scores?
the social conditions in which one is raised & educated
Koreans in Japan face discrimination & often pursue careers in entertainment. In America they are allowed to excell in science. ???
social circumstances have a big impact on criminal, athletic, & other forms of behavior
socially significant physicall differences such as skin color, but no biological differences determine behavior
sociologists believe race matters because
*perceptions of race affect the lives of most people profoundly *it allows social inequality to be created & maintained
people whose percieved cultural markers are deemed sociallly different compose
ethnic groups
blacks in S. Africa were in the numerical majority, but lacked social advantages. They formed...
a minority group
geographical concentration of ethnic group members who establish businesses that served to benefit the entire commmunity
ethnic enclave
former USSR used ethinc quotas to determine
where people could reside
spatial & institutional seperation of racial / ethnic grousp is...
treatment of native Americans by European immigrants in 1800's
Irish Americans began thinking of themselves as whites after 3 or 4 generation in US because of
a minority group blends into the majority & eventually disappears
one country virtually gaining control over another people in the same country & seeking to destroy their culture?
internal colonialism
intentional extermination of an entire ethnic/ racial population
babies born w/ ambiguous genitals due to a hormone imbalance in the womb are known as
intersexed AKA hermaphrodite
if Jackie thinks of himself as a boy he has formed a
gender indentity
gender is constructed by
culture & society
people who identify with & want to live fully as members of the opposite sex...
people who prefer sexual partners of the same sex
what contributes to the gender gap in earnings
1. gender discrimination 2. impact of heavy domestic responsibilites 3. concentration of women in low-wage occupations & industries 4. undervaluation of women's labor
which strand of feminism advocates nonsexist methods of socialization & employment
liberal feminism
the instution that organizes the production, distribution, & exchange of goods & services is
the market
sector of the economy that extracts raw materials & resources?
primary AKA producers
sector of the economy that turns raw materials into finished goods
secondary AKA manufacturing
sector of the economy that focuses on buying & selling of services
what device was invented about 5,000 years ago?
the plow
unions help to develop systems of labor recruitment, training, & promotion in
internal labor markets
organizations of workers that seek to defend & promore their member's interests are called
today's dominant economic world system
a distinctive feature of capitalism
*private ownership of property *competition in the pursuit of profit
a purely capitalist economy in which the gov. does not interfere at any level
big companies that operate in several industries at the same time are calledc
when an individual sits on the board of directors of 2+ non-competing companies, this forms
interlocking directorates
growing competition between multinational corporations has led big corporations to cut costs by building more branch plants in 
countries where they can take advantage of in expensive labor and low taxes
the main characteristics of a "good job"
*secure employment *opportunities for promotion *health insurance *pays better *more autonomy *less supervision *opportunity for higher education
the human relations school of management advocates
less authoritarian leadership on the shop floor, careful selection & training personnel, and greater attention to human needs & employee satisfaction
as one work revolution gave way to the next, work relations...
more hierarchical
one of the factors that sets prices is how plentiful goods & services are to consumers
social relations that regulate the exchange of goods and services are called
the feeling that one is unalbe to cope with life's demands given one's resources
clearly defined positions & written goals, rules, & procedures govern the organization of work in what form of work organization
Racial differences are based on
one or more physical markers such as skin color, facial features, hair, average height, weight, & build
gov of former USSR sought to make the country
ethnically homogeneous
what should we conclude from Thorne's research on a 4th & 5th grade Amercian classroom?
*1st: children are actively engaged in the process of constructing gender roles *2nd: although children tend to separate themselves by gender, boundaries btwn boys & girls are sometimes fluid, sometimes rigid depending on social circumstances
the appearance of the "White Rock Girl" changed over time. She lost 22 pounds and grew 4 inches over the span of 76 years this demonstrates
what is considered attractive & desired changes over time
in the US, since 1964 gender discrimination
has been illegal
There is widespread support for women's rights issues. However some men oppose the movement and have organized groups that
defend traditional male privileges
the ability to control others even against their will
when people regard the use of power as valid or justified
authority that  involves the widespread belief that a family's right to monopolize leadership derives from the will of God
traditional authority
Modern society: authority derives from respect for law. if someone achieves office by following laws their authority is...
legal rational
when extraordinary individuals challenge authority because they claim to be inspired by a God or some higher principle that transcends authority
they are claiming CHARISMATIC authority
an attempt by many people to ovethrow exsisting political instutions & establish new ones
politicial revolution
institutions that formulate and carry out a country's laws & public policies
the state
view that US is a heterogeneous society w/ many competeing interests & no one power center consisitently dominating
pluralist societies
according to C. Wright Mills elites occupy the command posts of
*most influential positions *executive branch of gov.
small gorups that occupy the command posts of America's most influential institutions are known as
voters in the 1988 elections responded to their level of political activity. Researchers concluded....
people with higher incomes are more politically active
theory that focuses on how variations in the distribution of power affects the fortunes of parties
power resource theory
to create democracies certain conditions must be met. Name one:
presence of middle class
Charles Perrow coined term
normal accidents
technological determinism
POV that technology is a major foreshaping of society & history
technological development has come under the influence of 
multination corporations
the main negative consequence of technological development
wide spread environmental degredation
groups in US society that experience more environmental risk?
minorities or poor
in a risk society danger does not result from technological accidents alone. it is also due to
increaseing environmental threats
environmental side effect of technology?
* global warming *industrial pollution *destruction of biodiversity *genetic pollutions
accumulation of CO2 in air allows more solar radiation to enter the atmosphere & less heat to escape
greenhouse effect
gradual increase in the world's average temp.
global warming
emission of various impurities into the air, water, & soil due to industrial processes
industrial pollutions
illness that plummeted during Olympics in Atlanta
asthma attacks
enormous variety of plant & animal species inhabiting the earth 
health risks & ecological danger taht may arise from artificially splicing genes together
genentic pollution
serious concern in using GMO's is
we cannot predict exact consequences
oil refineries, chem plants, toxic dumps & other enivronmentally dangerous installations are most likely to be built
in poor communties
Darwin: human survivial depends on
competition & cooperation
"Cancer Alley" is home to mostly racial minorities. this is an example of
environmental racism