SOC: Exam 2

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*groups *deviance V. Crime

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most people find it difficult to obey authorities b-cuz
they fear ridicule, ostracism, & punishment
why didn't more ordinary German citizens resist the Nazis
*paid more attention to norms than morality *did not want to let down comrades *wanted to maintain group morale, solidarity, & loyalty
Nazi regime's genocide machine operated efficiently partly b-cuz
*it was bureaucratically organized *achieved max efficiency by breaking down large goal one of into small tasks for many
Milgram's experiment: deadly "shocks" to subjects that answered questions incorrectly, tester/shockers were ordinary citizens
we are inclined to obey those in power, whether authority structure in new & artificial or old & well-established
group of people against whom an indiv. evaluates his situation is called...
a reference group
leadership style that allows subordinates to work largely on their own w/ almost no direction from above?
laissez-faire leadership
standard sociological criticisms of bureaucracy? (1,2)
*dehumanization (unique to standard) *bureaucratic ritualism (so occupied with rules & regulations that authority makes difficult to fulfill goals)
standard sociological criticisms of bureaucracy? (3,4)
*oligarchy (rule of few) *bureaucratic inertia (so large & rigid they lose touch w/ reality & continue policies even when in desperate need of change)
proportion of Jews killed during WWII was highest?
where nations were bureaucratically organized
pressure to conform despite individual misgivings is called?
except for crisis situations, the most effective leadership style is?
societies are collectivities of interacting people who share...
a culture & territory
hellish working conditions & deep social inequality characterized early...
industrial societies
class & gender inequality...
began to decrease as industrial societies matured
which country has more people behind bars than any other?
United States
MLK Jr was considered deviant & criminal in his lifetime, but not today. This illustrates that...
what society considers to be deviant and criminal changes over time
breaking a norm is known as?
Coca-cola originally contained cocaine. Now cocaine is illegal because...
of "perceived harmfulness"; the perceptions of harmfulness changed
minor acts of deviance such as participating in fads, fashions, or dying your hair an unusual color are called
social diversions
when many people agree that an act is deviant & somewhat harmful & that the act should be subject to some kind of formal punishment?
social deviations
a crime that generates little debate over its seriousness is a type of?
consensus crime
crucial elements in the social construction of deviance and crime
leader who tries to include all members in the decision-making process & molds best ideas into a strategy that all can identify with?
democratic leader
rape is associated w/ a low rate of prosecution. rapists often...
hold women in contempt & do not regard rape as a real crime
a crime "committed by a person of respectibility & high social status in the course of his occupation" is called?
white-collar crime
crime committed disproportionately by people from the lower classes?
street crimes
methods of ensuring conformity are known as?
social control
collective adaptation to social conditions in which people create distinctive norms & values is known as?
subcultural theory
theory that sees crime/deviance as growing out of social pressures that cause people to deviate
strain theory
if kids grown up in an env. where the people they care about teach them it is OK to choose a deviant lifestyle they are likely to do so. example of?
differential association
labeling theory holds that deviance results in...
response of others who label rule-breaker as deviant, not so much actions of the deviant
which theory focuses on the power & influence of wealthy & elites in imposing deviant & criminal labels on less powerful?
conflict theory
Robinson Crusoe, Swept Away & Titanic all illustrate issues of social inequality because they...
illustrate social relations that underlie and shape inequaltiy
the idea that society is organized in layers or strata is called?
social stratification
the assets you own & control compose your...
a home, car, & some appliances are all examples of...
what you are able to earn in a given period of time is know as...
your income
many members of the upper-upper class...
inherit their wealth
the meas. of income inequality that ranges from 0 to 1, meas of the level of internal strata & allows researches to compare inequality btwn societies?
Gini Index
variations in income & wealth between countries is known as
global inequality
in India society was divided into?
*castes *born into *determines occupations, who you can marry
in medieval Western Europe peasants were bound to land for life; landlord shared in peasants work & would protect in hardtimes. system know as?
what is determined by someone's "relationship to the mean of production?" (Marx)
social class/ status
those who do not own the "means of production" & work for wages (Marx)
members of the class that own the "means of production" such as factories, land & tools
idea that a judge's work contributes more to society than a janitors?
functional theory of stratification
people acquire specific cultural tastes associated w/ their ???. This helps to distinguish them from other people in social positions (Bourdieu)
(Weber) class is determined by one's
market situation: the possession of goods, opportunities for income, level of edu & degree of technical skill
the movie 'Sweet Home Alabama' achieves a happy ending by denying the often-difficult process of adapting to a new sub-culture as one experiences....
social mobility
what has a profound impact on the distribution of opportunities & rewards of society?
political life
term to describe the simultaneous homogenization of some aspects of life & the strengthening of some local differences under globalization
global inequality results from various dysfunctional characteristics of poor societies themselves (a theory)
Modernization theory
views economic development as the result of exploitive relations between rich & poor countries (a theory)
Dependency theory
according 2 dependency theorist, multinational corporations & rich countries continue exploitation of poor countries in the postcolonial period by
giving military & economic support to authoritarian governments
Wallerstein argues that capitalist development has resulted in the creation of tiers, which he calls...
*core capitalist countries *peripheral countries *semiperipheral countries
semiperipheral countries differ from peripheral countries in all ways except?
racial background
today which countries are industrializing quickly?
China & India
UN urges 22 richest nations to contribute .07% or GDP to development of aid of poor nations. Only 5 reached goal. Which one is not on list?
??? nations are rich, such as US, Japan & Germany that are the major sources of capital & tech in the world
core capitalist countries
a ??? is a WW network of labor & production processes whose end result are a finished commodity
global commodity chain
??? the is the economic domination of one nation by another
??? nations are former nations that are poor & are major sources of raw materials & cheap labor
peripheral nations
of the 1.3 bil people around the world living on a $1 a day or less, 1 bil are...
antiglobalization activists suggest that globalization is a form of...
30 drive form the capital of the Philippines an estimated 70,000 Filipinos live on...
*55acre mt of rotting garbage
Was Schindler a whistleblower?
No, False
Defining a Jew as anyone who has one Jewish GP, the German gov passed laws that supported systematic slaughter. Sociology suggests 3 factors contributed...
*norms of solidarity *obedience to structures of authority *bureaucratic organization
Schindler told Stern he does presentation not work. "Smoozing", know who to contact & what barriers might interfere is known as?
organizational environment/ organizational assets
An organized massacred of helpless people often associated w/ the treatment of Jews & other minorities is known as...
Rich & powerful impose criminal labels on less powerful, but use their $$ to escape punishment for their own misdeeds. This represents what theory?
conflict theory