Sensation And Perception

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Specialized cells that respond to a specific form of sensory stimulation
Sensory receptors
Process by which physical energy is converted into a coded neural signal to be used by the brain
Smallest possible strength of a stimulus that can be detected half the time
Absolute Threshold
(Just Noticeable Difference) smallest possible difference between two stimuli that can be detected half the time
Difference Threshold
Decline in sensitivity to a constant stimulus
Sensory Adaptation
The size of the JND will vary depending on its relation to the strength of the original stimulus
Weber's Law
Detection of stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness
Subliminal Perception
Repeated exposure to a stimulus increases that person's preference for that stimulus
Mere exposure effect
Contains all energy waves in vision
Electromagnetic Spectrum
clear membrane covering visible part of eye that helps gather and direct incoming light
opening in middle of iris that changes size to let in different amounts of light
colored part of eye; a muscle that controls size of pupil
transparent structure behind pupil that focuses, or bends, light as it enters the eye
process by which the lends changes shape to focus light so it falls properly on the retina
nearsightedness, light focused in front of retina
farsightedness, light focused behind retina
thin, light-sensitive membrane located at the back of the eye containing the photoreceptor (rods and cones)
small area in center of retina where visual information is most sharply focused; composed entirely of cones
contains no rods/cones; place where the optic nerve exits the back of the eye
optic disk
point at which optic nerve leaves where there is a small gap in your field of vision
blind spot
specialized neurons in retina that connect the rods/cones with the ganglion cells
bipolar cells
specialized neurons in the retina that connect to bipolar cells; bundled axons from optic nerve
ganglion cells
thick nerve that exits from back of eyes and carries visual info the the brain
optic nerve
point in the brain at which optic nerve fibers from each eye meet and partly cross over to the opposite side of brain
optic chiasm
property of wavelengths known as color (determined by wavelength)
property of color that corresponds to the purity of the light wave (single wave=more pure)
perceived intensity of a color, which corresponds to the amplitude of the light wave
the 5 basic tastes
Sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami
sensory receptors for pain found in the skin, muscles, and internal organs
a delta fibers transmit sharp, intense, short-lived pain due to immediate injury
fast system
C fibers transmit longer-lasting, throbbing, burning pain
slow system
sense of location of body parts in relation to one another
sense of balance, receptors located in the inner ear
receptors in muscles and joints that provide information about body position and movement
emphasizes the importance of sensory receptors in detecting the basic features of a stimulus in the process of recognizing a whole pattern; from the parts to the whole
bottom-up processing
emphasizes the importance of the observer's knowledge, expectations, and other cognitive processes in arriving at meaningful perception; from the whole to the parts
Top-Down Processing