Regulation Of Urine Concentration And Volume

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conuntercurrent mechanism ensures 
interstitial fluid in renal medulla becomes hypotonic 
countercurrent mechanism is so named because
descending and ascending limbs of nephron loops run parallel to each other
tissues are impermeable to water unless _____is present. This allows the body to ___-water and ____dehydration
upper portion of ascending limb is relatively impermeable to _____but does not actively reabsorb ions of 
watersodium chloridepotassium
end result of ascending loop is that the  interstitial fluid outside the ascending limb becomes _____ while the fluid inside the ascending tube becomes _____
 hypertonic hypotonic 
ADH changes the permeability of ____tubule by causing insertion of _____in the tubule  so that when water is conserved more water is reabsorbed in the ____tubule
distal aquaporin distal
when there is excess water, _____secretion decreases and more _____results and the excess is excreted
ADHdiluted urine
The ___cells of distal convoluted tubule are impermeable to ____in the absence of ____
epithelial waterADH 
if ADH is present, there is ______reabsorption, and the urine is more ______
increased water concentrated
Urea is a by-product of_____in _____
amino acid catabolismliver 
urea plasma concentration is a function of the amount of ____ingested
uric acid is a by-product of _____
nucleic acid metabolism
composition of urine varies depending on
dietary intake physical activity
urine is _____% water
urine contains 
ureauric acidcreatinineamino acidselectrolytes 
output of urine varies b/w ____and _____a day
0.6 and 2.5 liters
urine output should be at least ______per hour
30 ml (cc)
if urine output falls below 30 cc (ml) per hour for more than ____hrs than this likely indicates ____problem