Public Relations: Chapter 10

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Public Relations: Chapter 10

Public Relations

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PR must develop communication strategies and processes to influence the course of conflicts how?
to the benefits of the organizationto the benefit of the organization's constituents
what is the use of pr to influence the course of a conflict, and ultimately a crisis?
strategic conflict management
what are the key components of strategic conflict management?
- strategic- achieving- management- planned action- competition- striving- conflict- sharp opposition
What occurs when two or more groups of an organization vie for the same resources?
what occurs when two groups direct their efforts against each other?
the most competition lies where?
b/w competition for profit, rather than nonprofit
competition- eye on...conflict- eye on...
the prizethe opposition
Proffesional practice and competition/conflict:your organizations behavior must be?
Proffesional practice and competition/conflict:your organization must be?
Proffesional practice and competition/conflict:your organizations mission must be?
Proffesional practice and competition/conflict: your advocacy of the organization has?
Your organization works at creating?
mutual benefit
a pr professional will need to look where before dealing w/competition or conflict campaigns?
needs of organization and managing those conflicts
dealing with issues early on equals?
more efficentmorally correct
stance-driven approach?
- determine stance of the organization- stance determines strategy
stance-driven approach is based on what informal, unstated approach?
"it depends"
threat appraisal model?
situational demands and organizational resource
Threat appraisal model: which deals with required efforts, danger, and uncertainty?
situational demands
Threat appraisal model: which deals with knowledge, time, finance, and management?
organizational resource
Two other important approaches to conflict, aside from "it depends."
1- many factors determine stance2- stance can change with events
these two principles form the basis for what model?
contigency theory
Explain this model?
five external variables and six internal
1- external threats2 industry specific environment3 general political/social environment4 external public characteristics5 the issue under consideration
1 general corporate/organizational2 characteristics of th pr department3 top management characteristics4 internal threats5 personality characteristics of internal, involved persons6 relationship characteristics
Most practitioners report the major influence on public relations professionals?
individual level variable
What plays a major role in formulating proper strategy for dealing with a conflict or issue?
expertise and experience of the pr professionaldominant coalition
Two ends of the continuum model?
- pure advocacy- pure accomidation
hard-nosed stance of completely disagreeing or refuting the arguments, claims, or threats of a competitor or group?
pure advocacy
organization agreeing with its critics, changes its policies, makes restitution, and even makes a full public apology for its actions?
pure accomidation
Which model has four stages, events typically move from left to right, and then start again after they have reached the end?
conflict management life cycle
What four phases are there?
The proactive phase includes what?
activities and thought processes that can prevent a conflict from arising:environmental scanningissues trackingissue managementcrisis plan development
the constant reading listening, and watching of current affairs with an eye to the organization's interests?
environmental scanning
Systematic process- daily clippings for example
issue tracking
organization making behavioral changes or creating strategic plan in ways that address the emerging issue
issues management
a first step in preparing for the worst?
crisis plan
Strategic phase includes?
- conflict is identifiedrisk communicationconflict-positioningmanagement plan
dangers or threats to people being conveyed to forestall personal injury, health problems, and environmental damage.
risk communication
risk communication occurs for how long?
so long as the risk exists or until the risk escalates into crisis
strategies that enable the organization to position itself favorably in anticipation of actions such as litigation, boycott, adverse legislation, elections, or similar events
a specific ____ is developed to be prepared for the worst outcome?
crisis management plan
reactive phase?
when the conflict reaches a critical place and reaction must happen
What is implemented during this type?
crisis management plan
what else has to happen?
meet the needs of publics
what are used when conflict has emerged but is not careening out of control?
conflict resolution techniques
What employs communication strategies and pblicity efforts in support of legal actions or trials?
litigation public relation
recovery phase?
aftermath; bolster or repair:reputation managementimage restoration
sysstematic research to learn the state of the organization's reputation and then taking steps to improve it?
reputation management
what is strategies that provide genuine change by the organization?
image restoration
A proactive and systematic approach to predict problems, anticipate threats, minizime surprises, resolve issues, and prevent crisis?
issues managment
What does issue management require?
2 way communicationenvironmental scanningsense-making stratigies
What is the basic idea behind issues management?
proactive planning
five basic steps in the issues managmenet process
1- issue identification2- issue analysis3- strategy options4- the action plan5- the evaluation of results
issue identification?
trackingestablishing a trend line of coverage
issue analysis?
assess potential threat of an issue
Strategy options?
what to do about the emerging issue
action plan?
communicate the specific policy
has the strategy worked
any verbal or written exchange that attempts to communicate info that positions the organization favorably regarding competition or an anticipated conflict?
strategic positioning
informing the public of risks?
risk communication
risk communication can do what?
minimize adverse effects on publicsminimize risk to the organization itself
Variables effecting public perceptions:risks voluntarily taken tend to be...
Variables effecting public perceptions:the more complex a situation, the higher the...
perception of risk
Variables effecting public perceptions:Familiarity breeds...
Variables effecting public perceptions:Perceptions of risk increases when the messages of experts...
Suggestions to communicators:Begin contact and dialogue when?
early on
Suggestions to communicators:actively do what with concerns?
solicit and identify
Suggestions to communicators:recognize who as a legitimate partner in the process. 
Suggestions to communicators:address issues of what?
concern, even if they arent directly associated
Suggestions to communicators:prepare for?
Suggestions to communicators:understand the needs of?provide accurate, timely info, and respond promptly to requests.
Suggestions to communicators:always be what? even when it hurts.
how an organization responds in the first 24 hours, determines what?
whether the situation will remain an incident or become a full blown crisis
Top three triggers for a crisis:
1- financial irregularities2- unethical behavior3- executive misconduct
major occurence witha potentially negative outcome affecting the organization, company, or industry, as well as its publics, product, services, or good name
Communication during a crisis:put who first?
the public
Communication during a crisis:take what?
Communication during a crisis:be what?don't obscure facts and try to mislead the public
Communication during a crisis:never say:
no comment
Communication during a crisis:designate what?
a single spokesperson
Communication during a crisis:set up what?
a central info center
Communication during a crisis:provide a constant flow of?
Communication during a crisis:be familiar with?
media needs and deadlines
Communication during a crisis:be...
Communication during a crisis:monitor what?
news coverage and telephone inquiries
Communication during a crisis:communicate with whom?
key publics
Crisis Communication Strategies:the party that claims a crisis exists in confronted and its logic and facts are faulted. sometimes a lawsuit is threatened.
attack the accuser
Crisis Communication Strategies:the organization explains there is no crisis?
Crisis Communication Strategies:the organization minimizes its responsibility for the crisis?
Crisis Communication Strategies:crisis is minimized with a statement that no serious damage or injuries resulted?
Crisis Communication Strategies:actions are taken to appease the publics involved?
Crisis Communication Strategies:steps are taken to repair the damage from the crisis and to prevent it from happening again?
corrective action
Crisis Communication Strategies:organization takes responsibility and asks forgiveness. compensation or aid included
full apology
there are two different types of strategies:
accomodative- ingratiation, corrective, full apologydefensive- attack, denial, excuse
Must take what if defensive actions don't clear crisis?
the collective representation of an organization's past performance that describes the firm's ability to deliver valued outcomes to multiple stakeholders; track record of an organization in the public's mind?
Three foundations for reputation?
1- economic performance2- social responsiveness3- ability to deliver valuable outcomes to stakeholders
Five strategies for image restoration?
denialevade repsonsibilityreduce offensivenesscorrective actionmortification
didn't do it, shift the blame
evade responsibility?
provocationdefeasibility- couldn't avoidaccidentgood intentions
reduce offensiveness?
bolstering- reputationminimizationdifferentiationtransendenceattack accusercompensation
correective action?
ensure the prevention or correction
strategy of acknowledging the issue, but making it clear that the situation was an accident or the result of a decision with unintended actions
strategy of evading issue
most accomodative response?
profuse apology