Psychology Test #1

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Psychology Test #1

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The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Scientific Observation
an empirical investigation that is structured so that it answers questions about the world
research method
a systematic approach to answering scientific questions
developmental psychologists
study the course of human growth and development from conception until death
learning theorists
study how and why learning occurs in humans and animals
personality theorists
study personality traits, motivation, and individual differences
sensation and perception psychologists
investigate how we discern the world through our senses
comparative psychologists
study and compare the behavior of different species, especially animals. 
study how behavior relates to biological processes, especially activities in the nervous system 
cognitive psychologists 
interested in thinking.
gender psychologists
study differences between females and males
social psychologists
explore human social behavior, such as attitudes, persuasion, riots, conformity, leadership, racism, and friendship
cultural psychologists 
study the ways in which culture affects human behavior
evolutionary psychologists
are interested in how our behavior is guided by patterns that evolved during the long history of mankind
forensic psychologists
apply psychological principles to legal issues.
animal model
in research, an animal whose behavior is used to derive principles that may apply to human behavior
in scientific research, the process of naming and classifying
in psychology, understanding is achieved when the causes of a behavior can be stated 
psychology's 1st goal
psychology's 2nd goal
understanding and explanation 
psychology's 3rd goal
psychology's 4th goal
4 principles of critical thinking
1. few "truths transcend the need for empirical thinking.2. judging the quality of evidence is crucial.3. authority or claimed expertise does not automatically make an idea true.4. critical thinking requires an open mind.
critical thinking
an ability to evaluate, compare, analyze, critique, synthesize, and reflect on information
any false and unscientific system of beliefs and practices that is offered as an explanation of behavior 
what are the six steps of the scientific method?
1. making observations2. defining a problem3. proposing a hypothesis 4. gathering evidence/testing the hypotheses5. publishing results6 theory building
uncritical acceptance
the tendency to believe generally positive or flattering descriptions of oneself
fallacy of positive instances
the tendency to remember or notice information that fits on's expectations, while forgetting discrepancies
barnum effect
the tendency to consider a personal description accurate if it is stated in general terms
scientific method
a form of critical thinking based on careful measurement and controlled observation 
the predicted outcome of an experiment or an educated guess about the relationship between two variables
operational definition
defining a scientific concept by stating the specific actions or procedures used to measure it. 
a system of ideas designed to interrelate concepts and facts in a way that summarizes existing data and predicts future observations 
any physical energy sensed by an organism
to look within; to examine on's own thoughts, feelings, or sensations
the school of thought concerned with analyzing sensations and personal experiences in basic elements 
the school of psychology concerned with how behavior and mental abilities help people adapt to their environments 
natural selection
darwin's theory that evolution favors those plants and animals best suited to their living conditions
the school of psychology that emphasizes the study of overt, observable behavior
any muscular action, glandular activity, or other identifiable aspect of behavior
cognitive behaviorism
an approach that combines behavioral principles with cognition (perception, thinking, anticipation) to explain behavior
gestalt psychology
a school of psychology emphasizing the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole unites, not by analysis into parts.
contents of the mind that are beyond awareness, especially impulses and desires not directly known to a person
the unconscious process by which memories, thoughts, or impulses are held out of awareness
a freudian approach to psychotherapy emphasizing the exploration of unconscious conflicts
a psychologist who accepts the broad features of freud's theory but has revised the theory to fit his or her own concepts
psychodynamic theory
any theory of behavior that emphasizes internal conflicts, motives, and unconscious forces
an approach to psychology that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals
the idea that all behavior has prior causes that would completely explain one's choices and actions if all such causes were known 
free will
the idea that human beings are capable of freely making choices or decisions
the ongoing process of fully developing one's personal potential
biological perspective
the attempt to explain behavior in terms of underlying biological principles 
psychological perspective 
the traditional view that behavior is shaped by psychological processes occurring at the level of the individual
positive psychology
the study of human strengths, virtues, and effective functioning
sociocultural perspective
the focus on the importance of social and cultural contexts in influencing the behavior of individuals 
sociocultural perspective 
the focus on the importance of social and cultural contexts in influencing the behavior of individuals 
cultural activity 
the idea that behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs
social norms
rules that define acceptable and expecte behavior for the members of a group
a person highly trained in the methods, factual knowledge, and theories of psychology
clinical psychologist
a psychologist who specializes in the treatment of psychological and behavioral disturbances or who does research on such disturbances
counseling psychologist
a psychologist who specializes in the treatment of milder emotional and behavioral disturbances 
a medical doctor with additional training in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and emotional disorders 
a mental health professional (usually a medical doctor) trained to practice psychoanalysis 
a mental health professional who specializes in helping people with problems not involving serious mental disorders
psychiatric social worker
a mental health professional trained to apply social science principles to help patients in clinics and hospitals