Psychology Of Personality- Test 2-continued

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Psychology Of Personality- Test 2-continued

Second Psychology Of Personality Test Material Continued

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Carl Rogers- 2 basic themes
-Formative Tendency- made assumption that all people go from simple to complex.-Actualizing Tendency- movement toward fulfilling one's potential- the way people operate.-The 3 things for successful therapy are also needed for life. If you want to have a satisfying life, you need congruent people, unconditional positive regard, and empathetic listeners around you.
5 basic assumptions of Trait Theories
1. Traits are the fundamental building block of personality.2. Traits are inherited- passed on genetically3. Traits are present at birth- personality present at birth.4. Personality/ traits can be measured.5. Results of personality tests can be used for diagnosing problems, vocational use, etc. Criticism- theory assumes traits are inherited- little room for change- Psychologists are in the business of behavioral change- you have no control if your behavior is inherited. You can be far away from parent's personality.
Raymond Catell- general
-born 1905 (England)- PhD in Psychology University of London 1929- became famous for identifying personality traits, classifying them, developing tests. Brought to US in 1930s by US government to develop a test to see who would be best candidates for officer candidate school. Developed institute of personality research.
-Traits can be surface traits- specific traits, different kinds of words that mean the same kind of thing- can break them into source traits- ones that hold all the other ones (groups)- generalized- encompasses a number of different ways that behavior becomes exhibited.-Theorists looked for core source traits to develop tests.-Forced choice: have to select one of the available choices- self-report- what you would do, prefer, true or false. (16PF test)- continuum of 16 variables- fall somewhere between each- 16PF- very easy to administer (take)- hard to score (before computers) once you have profile for person- interpret it by profiles- for alcoholics, criminals, homosexuals, psychopaths, obsessive-compulsive, speech disorders, schizophrenia, artists, etc. Compare person's profile with profiles in book.-MMPI- most commonly and widely used and considered to be one of the best. Most valid and reliable- 576 t/f questions- problems with even the best. Get a score in one or more of the 10 scales. They can be taken out of context- depending on the mood person is in.
Personality tests criticized on 4 issues
1. Responses can be situational- depending on mood.2. Lies- faking- give you what they think you want to hear or what they want you to think.3. Don't know themselves- don't know what they would do. (70% of population said they wouldn't administer electric shock (Milligan)- 90% of the people did deliver the shock. We don't know ourselves.4. Rush through questions- Impatience.-Have to be extremely careful with personality tests. 
Raymond Catell- Major Contributions
1. Surface and Source traits- used factor analysis to identify 16 source traits.2. Led movement in US to develop traits.3. 3 types of data to be used for personality tests. Q-data: Questionnaire- forced-choice self-report. L-data: life-record data- social workers- report of what happened when person was growing up- early forms of behavior. T-data: Test data- IQ tests (right/wrong- answers can be scored)-MMPI is not a real test, it is a profile.
Gordon Allport
-Not truly a trait theorist- calls himself that, made contributions to personality theory. PhD in Psychology- 1922- Harvard (Born in Indiana)- studied under Freud. Taught 1st course at Harvard called Theories of Personality. First PhD in Personality research- 6 criteria for healthy personality- including extension of self.
Hans Eysenck- general
-Born in Germany- 1916-1997. PhD 1940- University of London. 1990 wrote book- the rise and fall of the Freudian Empire. 
Hans Eysenck- major contributions
1. Wrote about 400 articles and 75 books. One of the most prolific writers in Psychology. 2. Talked about what was wrong with Freudian theory. Strong position in term of inherited characteristics 75% of personality inherited- social/environmental conditions- 25%. Used criminal personality- never found genes related to this- closer biological relationship, more likely they were to share personality characteristics.3. 4-step-model- step 1- specific acts- 2-habitual acts- 3-traits- 4-types. Start at level 1 (John skipped class today, Sally got drunk today, Tony cheated on an exam today) -one time occurrences tell you nothing. 2- (John skipped class 3 times this week, John is only carrying 9 hours, Sally got drunk, talked to counselor, doesn't need to get drunk anymore, Tony cheats regularly- has sophisticated system.) 3- habitual acts start to identify traits. (John has low priority for school). 4- as traits become more ingrained and larger, they become types- 3 types.4. 3 personality dimensions (types)- all of personality can be classified in terms of introversion/extroversion, superego function/psychoticism, and stability/neuroticism. Person is not one or the other- continuum. 
Robert McCrae and Paul Costa
-Came up with 5 traits proposed in 1985- used since then- some people disagree. Introversion/extroversion, neuroticism/stability, openness/closed, agreeableness/psychoticism, and consientious/negligent. 
William Sheldon
-PhD in Psychology- MD- University of Chicago- Psychology- interested in mind-body connection. Developed somatotyping. 3 major body types and 3 major personality types- compares. Don't say personality causes body types or body type causes personality, but somehow they are related and interact with each other. Something has an effect on both. Endomorph, Mesomorph, Echtomorph (on handout) 3 personality types- Viscirotonia, somatotonia, cerebrotonia (on handout). Rate 1-7 in each of the categories. Some combination (Each rated individually 1-7).-Do it easy with small amount of training. If body type and personality type are in agreement, healthy individual. If not- Echtomorph and not viscirotonia- most likely paranoid, Mesomorph and not somatatonia-schizophrenic, Echnomorph and not cerebratonia- manic depressive.-When you are out of balance, complications and problems.