Psychology Lifespan Development Test 1

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Chapters 1-4 For Lifespan Development For Exam 1

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5 Steps of the Scientific Method
1. Identification of the problem to be studied 2. Hypothesis formulation- something that can be tested  3. Data collection  4. Statistical analysis & conclusions  5. Public dissemination
Descriptive Research
Tells us that something happens, but not why. Initial step for future research.
Correlational Research
Determination of the degree & strength of relationship between to variables. Does not imply causation. 
Experimentational Research 
Determination of cause and effect relationships due to direct manipulation of independent variable. 
Independent Variable
Manipulated variable in a research study
Dependent Variable
Variable that changes because of the influence of the independent variable
Longitudinal Investigation
A large group measured over long time. Very expensive. Attrition (loss of participants over time). Repeated testing. Time investment. 
Cross-Sectional Design
People from different age groups studied simultaneously with # of discrete groupings within time. Cohort effect problem. 
Cross-Sequential Design
Combo of longitudinal and cross-sectional design. Small groups for shorter amount of time & allows to check for cohort effects. 
Microgenetic Studies
Single, small group of individuals are tested repeatedly during a short period of time. See development as it occurs. Expensive due to multiple measurements. 
Case Studies
Single individual examined in extreme detail. Many different measures utilized. Generates new lines of research. Individual is usually deviant from the norm. 
Cross-Cultural Studies
Culture is the independent variable. Ex: How culture influences aggressive tendencies. Helps with nature vs nurture debate.
Comparative Studies
Examine similarities across species. Give insight into human development, although question of ethics and assumption that findings can be generalized. 
Quantitative Development
A change in the number or amount of a particular "something" (vocab, height, weight). Non-stage theories emphasize gradual, incremental & continuous development such as this. 
Qualitative Development
Change in underlying organization of a particular ability (speaking, walking) Such shifts most addressed in stage theories. 
Pavlov's Classical Conditioning
Unconditioned stimulus (food) brings about unconditioned response (salivation).Unconditioned stimulus repeatedly paired with neutral stimulus (bell or footsteps), conditioned response brought about (salivation). 
Stimulus Generalization
When stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produced the conditioned response. 
Stimulus Discrimination
A learned tendency to differentiate between two similar stimuli if one is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus and the other is not. 
A process in which the conditioned response is weakened & when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus. 
Higher-Order Conditioning (Second-Order Conditioning)
When a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus, causing the neutral stimulus to become a second conditioned stimulus. 
Skinner's Operant Conditioning
Learn from outcome of a response, it's an indicator if we keep acting the same way. Stimulus-Response-Outcome. Focus on the consequence or outcome of behavior as driving force behind learning & behavioral development. 
Primary Reinforcers
Those things necessary for the survival of an organism. Ex: Food, shelter, sex
Secondary Reinforcers
Things that become reinforcing through their association with a primary reinforcer. Ex: Money. 
Positive Reinforcement
Adding a pleasant stimulus to encourage a given behavior. Ex: Giving candy to a kid who is crying for something. 
Negative Reinforcement
Withdrawing an unpleasant stimulus to encourage a given behavior. Ex: Take away timeout to encourage room cleaning. 
Positive Punishment
Adding an unpleasant stimulus to weaken a behavior. Ex: Spanking. 
Negative Punishment
Withdrawing a pleasant stimulus to weaken a given behavior. Ex: Sleep without dinner
What did Bandura contribute beyond that proposed by Watson and Skinner?
Emphasis that learning often times is from observation and limitation. Learn from outcome of other's behavior through vicarious reinforcement & vicarious punishment. Learn through observing live or symbolic models. 
How does Bandura's theory differ from Watson and Skinner in terms of cognitive representation?
Skinner: Only observable behaviors, cognitions= by-product, had to experience in order to learn it. 
Bandura: Need to have a cognitive representation of both self & other cognitions= central to learning, can learn through others
Vicarious Reinforcement
See another being reinforced for their behavior, more likely to do it
Vicarious Punishment
See another get punished, less likely to do it
Scheme according to Piaget
Flexible action pattern learned through the experience & environment. Develops via sensory and motory activity.Ex: Child & pacifier during 1st year of life-- physically based
Object Permanence
Understanding on the child's part that na object continues to exist even though not physically present; self-awareness
Symbolic Representation
Understanding that something can represent something else. Developed towards end of sensorimotor periodand more sophisticated during preoperational thought
Preoperational Thought (Characteristics)
Deal with world in qualitatively different way. Become more sophisticated in use of symbolic thought (widespread representation). Begin to understand stable identity. Better understand organization. Begin to develop feelings of empathy. 
Preoperational Thought (Limitations)
-Centration: focus on 1 aspect and neglect others.-Irreversibility.-Don't understand transformations between states.-Poor use of deductive (see relationships between facts & knowledge to come to solution) & inductive reasoning. -Egocentrism-Animistic beliefs-Appearance from reality
Concrete Operational Thought (Characteristics)
Overcoming limitations of stage 2.Better distinguish between fantasy & reality.Classify objects based on characteristics. Use inductive & deductive reasoning. Attributes of object cause certain effect.Place objects in series (seriation).Infer how 2 objects related to each other by how 3rd object is involved (transitive inference).Begin to master conservation.Mentally visualize spatial relationships (cognitive map).More experience. Understand schema & its overlaps. 
Concrete Operational Thought (Limitations)
Met by formal operational thought, which addresses:-abstract thought-Movement away from trial-and-error towards hypothetical-deductive reasoning
How does species heredity differ from individual heredity?
Species heredity: genetic endowment that's common to the species and governs maturation and aging. (2 eyes, sexual maturity at 12-14yrs).
Individual: genes passed on by your parents
Main arguments of Darwin's theory
Genetic variation exists in all species.Some genes aid in adaptation.
What is the focus of Behavioral Genetics?
Genetic/environment cause of trait.Heritability estimates.Methods of studying: experimental & selective breeding & twin, adoption, family studies
Methods of investigation used in behavioral genetics
Experimental and selective breeding (Tryon's maz-bright rats).
Twin, adoption, family studies (reared together or apart, concordance rates).
Differences between the 3 forms of correlation as detailed by Scarr and McCartney.
Passive G/E correlations: parents create social home.
Evocative G/E correlations: smiley baby gets more social stimulation.
Active G/E correlations: Child seeks parties, friends, groups, etc.
Outcome of conception, fertilized egg. . Combination of chromosomes. 
The 3 Prenatal Periods
Germinal (days 1-14).Embryonic (3rd-8th week).Fetal (9th week- birth).
Germinal Period (days 1-14)
Zygote implants itself along uterine wall. 1/2 successful, 15% to 50% miscarriage.
Embryonic Period (3rd to 8th week)
Organogenesis (rapid organ development). Most susceptible to teratogens. Sexual differentiation.
Fetal Period (9th week- birth)
Proliferation, migration.Major muscular development.Ends in tremendous brain development. 
Negative environmental influences that can potentially harm or destroy developing organisms.
After how many weeks is the child normally born?
40 weeks (38 in uterus, 2 weeks post las menstrual period).
Can live on its own at about 28 weeks.
What factors are involved in determining how much of an impact a teratogen will have?
Dosage & duration. Genetic make-up: susceptibility. 
For morning sickness. All or parts of limbs missing & many didn't survive. 
Miscarriages. Low birth weight. Mental retardation.Physical problems.Slow fetal growth.SIDS
FAS.Small. Facial deformities.Retardation.
Processing difficulties.Severe behavioral problems.
Rubella (German Measles)
Blind.Deaf. Heart problems.Brain problems.
Miscarriage.Blind. Deaf.Heart: circulation issues.Brain.
MR.Leukemia.Cancer.Mutations.Spontaneous abortions.
In air and water.Lead- MR (also post natal.Learning disabilities. 
What are some problems we see for some children born to mothers who are under 16 and for those above 35?
15 & younger don't seek prenatal care: birth complications & low birth weight.
Above 35: Miscarriage & Down Syndrome.
How much weight gain is normal during pregnancy?
25-35 lbs.Malnutrition: smaller neurons, brain, & child.
Large amounts of estrogen produced and stimulates uterus to contract and the cervix to widen. 
First stage of birth (generally the longest)
Typically lasts 12 hours or more.Cervix begins to dilate. Contractions begin (8-10min apart, last about 30 seconds).By end every 2 min and last for 60-90 seconds.
Second Stage (the "pushing" stage)
Lasts 1.5 hours or less.The baby's head moved through the cervix and into the vaginal canal. Period lasts until child born.
Third Stage (After Birth)
Lasts 5 to 30 minutes.The placenta and umbilical cord are expelled from the mother.
Oxygen shortage can be severe. Fairly common.
Cesarean Delivery
Surgical procedure to remove the baby from the uterus by cutting through the abdominal wall. Usually done if there is a problem: head too large, baby in breech position, mother has vaginal infection
Medicated Delivery
Local anesthesia given to woman to ease the pain of childbirth.Some feel it may danger the child(inconsistent data).Many go fo "walking" epidural (lower spine)
Natural Childbirth
Uses breathing and relaxation techniques instead of medications. 
Where, in the US, are most babies born? Is this the case worldwide?
Hospitals (over 95%).
Not the same worldwide.
Slight change seen in US, more women wanting to give birth at home or at birth centers. -More psychologically and physically comforting. -Not ready at hospital for emergency care.
Newborn child.Average 20 inches long, 7.5 lbs.Disproportionately large head (influence of cephalocaudal development).Receded chin.Fontanels.Covered with thin layer of fuzzy hair (lanugo) & oily covering called the vernix caseosa ("cheesy varnish").Become independent of mother.Secretes meconium from intestinal tract shortly after birth, cleaning out intestinal tract. 
Physical Development
Growth of body and organs, physical signs of aging, motor abilities, function of physiological systems. 
Cognitive Development
Perception, language, learning, memory, problem solving, mental processes.
Psychosocial Development
Motives, emotions, personality traits, interpersonal skills & relationships. 
Bronfrenbrenner's Bioecological Model
Environment organized and affects development.Microsystem.Mesosystem.Exosystem.Macrosystem. Chronosystem. 
Immediate physical & social environment. Face-to-Face. Ex: family. 
Links between 2+ Microsystems
Social settings experienced indirectly. Ex: How parent's work day went. 
Microsystem, mesosystem  & exosystem embedded into cultural context
Patterning of events over time
Father's State during pregnancy
Older= miscarriage increase & risk of congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, kidney problems, & Down Syndrome.
Toxic influences can damage the genetic material in his sperm. 
Freud's Stages
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latent, Genital 
Erikson's Stages
Trust vs. Mistrust.Autonomy vs. shame.Initiative vs. guilt.Industry vs. inferiority. Identity vs. role confusion.Intimacy vs. isolation.Generativity vs. Stagnation.