Psychology Exam 2

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Questions On Learning And Memory

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Learning is best defined as...
A Relatively permanent change in the behavior of an organism due to experience.
In Pavlov's original experiment with dogs, the meat served as a(n):
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
In Pavlov's original experiment with dogs, the tone was initially a(n) _______ stimulus; after it was paired with meat, it became a(n) _______ stimulus.
Neutral; Conditioned
In order to obtain a reward a monkey learns to press a lever when a 1000-Hz tone is on but not when a 1200-Hz tone is on. What kind of training is this?
When a conditioned stimulus is presented without an accompanying unconditioned stimulus, _______ will take place.
In Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste-aversion learning, rats learned to associate:
Taste with sickness
In Pavlov's original experiment with dogs, salivation to meat was the:
Unconditioned Response (UR)
Classical conditioning experiments by Rescorla and Wagner demonstrate that an important factor in conditioning is:
The predictability of an association
Classical conditioning, Operant conditioning and Observational learning are all forms of:
Associative Learning
For the rapid conditioning, a CS should be presented when?
About half a second before the US
During extinction, the ________ is omitted; as a result ______ seems to disappear.
Unconditioned Stimulus (US), Conditioned Response (CR)
In Watson and Rayner's experiment, the loud noise was the ______ and the white rat was the ______.
Unconditioned Stimulus (US), Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Classical Conditioning may play a role in ______, _______ and ________.
Emotional Problems, The Body's Immune Response and Helping Drug Addicts
In Pavlov's studies of classical conditioning of a dog's salivary responses, when did spontaneous recovery occur?
When the CS was reintroduced following extinction of the CR and a rest period.
Experiments on taste-aversion learning demonstrate that:
For the conditioning of certain stimuli, the Unconditioned Stimulus need not immediately follow the Conditioned Stimulus.
You always rattle the box of dog biscuits before giving your dog a treat. As you do so, your dog salivates. Rattling the box is a(n)________; your dog salivating is a(n)________.
Conditioned Stimulus, Conditioned Response
Bill had a blue car that was always in the shop, since then he wont even consider owning or blue or green car. Bill's aversion to green cars is an example of:
The type of learning associated with Skinner is: 
Operant Conditioning
Learning is most rapid with _________, but ________ produces the greatest resistance to extinction 
Continuous Reinforcement, Intermittent Reinforcement
Cognitive processes are important in both _______ and _______
Classical, Operant Conditioning
The highest and most consistent rate of response is produced by a _______ schedule.
A response that leads to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus is one being:
Negatively reinforced
One difference between classical and operant conditioning is that:
In classical conditioning the responses are automatically triggered by stimuli.
Punishment is a controversial way of controlling behavior because:
1) Behavior is not forgotten and may return2) Punishing stimuli often create fear3) Punishment often increases aggressiveness. 
Presenting a positive stimulus after a response, Removing an unpleasant stimulus after a response and being told you have done a good job are all examples of:
Shaping is a(n)________ technique for ________ behavior
operant, establishing
For operant conditioning to be most effective, when should the reinforcers be presented in relation to the desired response?
Immediately after
In distinguishing between negative reinforcers and punishment we note that:
In contrast to punishment, negative reinforcement increases the likelihood of a response by termination of an aversive stimulus.
The "piecework," or commission, method of payment is an example of which reinforcement schedule?
Putting on your coat when it is cold outside is a behavior that is maintained by: 
negative reinforcement
On an intermittent reinforcement schedule, reinforcement is given:
only some of the time
You teach your dog to fetch the paper by giving him a cookie each time he does so. This is an example of:
Operant Conditioning
Mental representation of one's environment is a(n):
Cognitive Map
After exploring a complicated maze for several days, a rat subsequently ran the maze with very few errors when food was placed in the goal box for the first time. This performance illustrates:
Latent Learning
Leon's psychology instructor has scheduled an exam every 3rd week of the term. Leon will probably study the most just before an exam and the least just after an exam. This is because the schedule of exams is reinforcing studying according to ________.
On-line testing systems and interactive software are applications of the operant conditioning principles of:
Shaping and immediate reinforcement
Jack finally takes out the garbage in order to get his dad to stop pestering him, Jack's behavior is being influenced by:
Negative Reinforcement
A pigeon can easily be taught to flap its wings in order to avoid shock but not for food reinforcement. According to the text, this is most likely so because:
Pigeons are biologically predisposed to flap their wings in order to escape aversive events and to use their beaks to obtain food.
When Reggie's mother tells him that he can watch tv after he cleans his room, she is using _____, _____ and ______.
Operant Conditioning, Secondary Reinforcement and Positive Reinforcement
Bandura is associated with ______ learning
Mirror neurons are found in the brains _______, and are believed to be the neural basis for observational learning.
Frontal Lobe
In promoting observational learning the most effective models are those we perceive as:
1) Similar to ourselves2) Respected and Admired3) Successful
Regarding the impact of watching television violence on children, most researchers believe that: 
watching violence on tv leads to aggressive behavior
The 3-stage processing model of memory was proposed by:
Atkinson and Shiffrin
Memory Techniques such as the method of loci, acronyms and the peg-word system are called:
Mnemonic Devices
Textbook chapters are often organized into ______ in order to facilitate information processing.
Darren was asked to memorize a list of letters that included v, q, y and j. He later recalled these letters as e, u, i and k, suggesting that the original letters had been encoded:
The first thing Karen did when she discovered that she has misplaced her keys was to re-create in her mind the day's events. That she had little difficulty in doing so illustrates: 
Automatic Processing.
Although you cant recall the answer to a question on your psychology midterm, you have a clear mental image of the textbook page on which it appears. Evidently, your ______ encoding of the answer was ______.
visual, automatic
Kandel and Schwartz have found that when learning occurs, more of the neurotransmitter _______ is released into synapses.
Studies demonstrate that learning causes permanent neural changes in the ______ of animals' neurons.
In Sperling's memory experiment, research participants were shown three rows of three letters, followed immediately by a low, medium or high tone. The participants were able to report:
Any one of the three rows of letters.
Studies of amnesia victims suggest that there are ____ distinct types of memory
The area of the brain that is most important in the processing of implicit memories is:
the cerebellum
Amnesia victims typically have experienced damage to the ______ of the brain.
Lashley's studies, in which rats learned a maze and then had various parts of their brains surgically removed, showed that the memory:
remained no matter which area of the brain was tampered with.
The disruption of memory that occurs when football players have been knocked out provides evidence for the importance of: 
Consolidation in the formation of new memories. 
Long-term Potentiation refers to:
the increased efficiency of synaptic transmission between certain neurons following learning.
Amnesia patients typically experience disruption of _____ memories
It is easier to recall information that has just been presented when the information is _____ rather than _____.
heard, seen.
During basketball practice Jan's head was painfully elbowed. If the trauma to her brain disrupts her memory, we would expect Jan would be most likely to forget:
the most recent experiences.
After suffering damage to the hippocampus, a person would probably lose the ability to:
store new facts