Psychology Chapter 2 Test

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Psychology Chapter 2 Test

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Nervous System

Without it, you couldn't exist! 
Made up of your brain, your spinal cord, and a network of nerves. 
Your brain uses information it receives from your nerves to coordinate all of your actions and reactions. 

A specialized, impulse-conducting cell. 
Consists of the cell body, axon, and dendrites.
Cell Body

Generates energy needed to carry out the work.

Root like structures, attached to the cell body of  neuron, that receive impulses form other neurons.

A long, thin part of a neuron that transmits impulses to other neurons from terminal buttons.
What is a neuron's job?

Carry messages in ONE DIRECTION from dendrites/cell body, through axon, to axon terminals.
Then transmits messages from terminal buttons to other neurons, muscles, or glands
Glial Cells

Remove dead neurons & waste from the nervous system, nourish neurons, and direct their growth.

A fatty substance that decreases leakage of electrical current being carried along the axon, allowing messages to conduct regularly.
Afferent Neurons

(Sensory Neurons)
Receive & transmit messages from sensory receptors to the spinal cord and brain.
Ex: The feeling you get in your foot after someone steps on it.
Efferent Neurons
(Motor Neurons)
Transmit messages from the brain or spinal cord to muscles and glands.
Ex: Hopping around after someone steps on your foot.
Luigi Galvani

Discovered that neural impulses are electrochemical.
*Connected lightning rods to dissected frogs. When lightning struct their muscles contracted.
Neural Impulses

Electrochemical messages that travel within neurons at somewhere between 2 and 225 mph.
(neurons & body fluid contain ions in resting state)
Chemical changes happen within neurons which cause them to be transmitted.
Polarize/Resting Potential

An unequal distribution of ions (atoms with a positive or negative charge) on the two sides of the nerve cell membrane. 
Expressed as -70 mV, and the minus means that the inside is negative relative to (or compared to) the outside.
It occurs when a membrane is not being stimulated or conducting impulses.
Peripheral part of the nervous system

Everything except the brain & spinal cord
To reduce the resting potential of a cell membrane from about 70 millivolts to -----> 0.  positive charge
Permeability of the cell membrane changes again, allowing no more sodium ions to enter.
Action Potential

Very rapid change in membrane potential that occurs when a nerve cell membrane is stimulated. 
Potential goes from the resting potential (typically -70 mV) to some positive value (typically about +30 mV) in a very short period of time.
Next section of the cell becomes permeable, positive ions are being pumped out, continuing the cycle.
A L L   O R   N O N E
How messages travel from neuron to neuron

A neuron fired neurotransmitters out of an axon.
Incoming messages combine to reach a certain threshold.
All-or-none principle
Action potentials occur maximally or not at all.
Refractory Period
A phase following firing during.
A neuron is less sensitive to messages from other neurons and will not fire.

Flows info from one neuron to another.
When a nerve impuls reaches a synapse, axon terminals release chemical into the synaptic cleft.
Synaptic Vesicles

Sacs in axon terminals, which contain neurotransmitters.

Chemical substances involved in the transmission of neural impulses from one neuron to another.
Work only at matching sites.      -Exite: cause others to fire      -Inhibit: prevent others to fire
Excess or Deficiencies lead to depression & schizophrenia 
Receptor Site
A location on a dendrite of a receiving neuron tailored to receive a neurotransmitter.
Parts of the nervous system
Brain, spinal cord, and nerves linking them to sensory organ, muscles, and glands.
Central part of the nervous system
The brain & spinal cord
Somatic Nervous System
Transmits messages about sight, sound, ect.Afferent (Sensory) & Efferent (Motor)
Automatic Nervous System

Regulate glands & muscles of internal organs.    -Sympathetic: prepares body for emergency    -Parasympathetic: becomes active during relaxation.
Spinal Cord

A long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the brain
Spinal Reflex
A simple, unlearned response to a stimulus that may involve only 2 neurons (sensory & motor neuron)
Gray Matter

Nonmyelinated neurons. Grayish neurons and neural segments that are involved in spinal reflex/or send axons to brain.
White Matter
Longer myelinated axons that carry messages to and from the brain.
Episonic Memory
remember what, where, and when you at dinner?
Fear, emotion, and anxiety. Discovered by Delgado
Triggers stereotypical aggressive responses.
Down Syndrome results from
when you have an extra chromosome on the 21st pair
Characterized by mental deficiency, a broad face, and slanting eyes. Death by middle age.
Wilder Penfield
Stimulated parts of the brain with electrical probes
The Electroencephalograph (EEG)
Record natural electricity in the brain (brain waves) passed between electrodes.
Associated with feeling of relaxation, sleep stages, and epilepsy.
Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT Scan)
Brain imaging that passes a narrow x-ray beam through the head & measures structures that reflect the rays from various angles, enabling a computer to generate a 3D image.
Position Emission Tomography (PET Scan)
Brain imaging that injects a radioactive tracer into the bloodstream and assesses activity of parts of the brain according to the amount of glucose they metabolize.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Brain imaging that places a person in a magnetic field and uses radio waves to cause the brain to emit signals that reveal shifts in the floe of blood, which, in turn, indicate brain activity.
Functional MRI
A form of MRI that enables researchers to observe the brain "while it works" by taking repeated scans.
Prefrontal Cortex
EXECUTIVE CENTER where decisions are made to keep information in memory and solve problems
Where the spinal cord rises to meet the brain.
A structure of the hindbrain involved in respiration, attention, sleep, and dreaming.
In front of medulla. Transmits info about body movement.
An oblong area of the hindbrain involved in regulating heartbeat and respiration.
A part of the hindbrain involved in maintaining balance and controlling motor behavior.
Reticular Activating System (RAS)
A part of the brain involved in attention, sleep, and arousal.
Vital in attention, sleep, and arousal.
Injury may result in a coma.
Most forward part of the brain.
Near the center of the brain involved in the relay of sensory information to the cortex and in the functions of sleep and attention.
A bundle of nuclei below the thalamus involved in body temperature, motivation, and emotion.
James Olds & Peter Milner
Discovered an animal's hypothalamus on accident.
Humans are stimulated by higher functions. Choices & Values.
Limbic System
A group of structures involved in memory, motivation, and emotion that forms a fringe along the inner edge of the cerebrum.
The large mass of the forebrain, which consists of 2 hemispheres
Cerebral Cortex
The wrinkled surface area(gray matter) of the cerebrum.
Valley in the cortex.
Somatosensory Cortex
The section of cortex in which sensory stimulation is projected. It lies behind the central fissure in the parietal lobe.
Prefrontal region
Involved in thinking & language.
A disruption in the ability to understand or produce language. 
Wernicke's Aphasia
A language disorder characterized by difficulty comprehending the meaning of spoken language.
Broca's Aphasia
A language disorder characterized by slow difficult speech.
Left Brain
Logical & Intellectual
Right Brain
Intuitive, creative, and emotional.
Left Handedness
Used to be considered a deficiency.
Tend to have language problems, yet gifted in music & math.
1 parent left handed = 80% probability for child
Temporary disturbances of brain function that involve sudden neural discharges.
Organs that secrete one or more chemical substances such as hormones, saliva, milk.
2 Types: with & without ducts
A passageway that carries substances to specific locations.
Endocrine System
System of ductless glands that secrete hormones and release them directly into the blood stream.
A substance secreted by an endocrine gland that regulates body functions.
Ex: growth,metabolism, and some behavior
Pituitary Gland
MASTER GLAND  -growth hormone(muscles, bones, glands)  -prolactin (maternal behavior)  -Vasopressin (paternal behavior for animals)  -Oxytocin (stimulates labor) 
Pineal Gland
Secretes melatonin: regulates sleep-wake cycle
Thyroid Gland
Produces thyroxin, which affects the body's metabolism.
A condition that results from too little thyroxin.
Too much or too little causes overweight & sluggishness.
A condition characterized by stunned growth & mental retardation.
Adrenal Glands
(located above the kidneys)Secretes hormones called corticosteroids: increase resistance to stress, promote muscle development, cause liver to release sugar, making more energy available for emergencies.
Believed in evolution & contradicted the Bible
Batural Selection
Species that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce.
Small, random genetic variations.
Evolutionary Psychology
Studies ways in which adaptation and natural selection are connected with mental processes and behavior.
Stereotyped pattern of behavior that is triggered by a particular stimulus.
Defines Nature
Traits from parents to offspring by means of genes.
Defines Nurture
The area of biology that focuses on heredity.
MOST BASIC unit of heredity, found on a specific point on chromosome
A microscopic rod-shaped body in the cell nucleus carrying genes that transmit heredity traits from generation to generation.
Forms the basic material of chromosomes; form of a double helix and contains genetic code.
James Watson & Francis Crick
Traits influenced by gene combos.
Ex: intelligence.
Genetic makeup based on nucleotide sequencing.
Outer appearance based off life experiences.
Sex Chromosomes
23rd pair, which determines sex
X from father =femaleY from father=male
Kinship Studies
*identical twins share 100% genes**parents & children have 50%**aunts & uncles share 25% with nieces/nephews**1st cousins share 12.5%*
The fertilized egg cell (ovum) that carries genetic messages from both parents
Monozygotic Twins (MZ)
Develop from a single fertilized ovum that divides into 2 early in development; share the same genetic code. (IDENTICAL)
Dizygotic Twins
Develop from 2 fertilized ova who are closest relates as brother & sister in general (FRATERNAL)