Psych Modules 1,2,3

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Wilhelm Wundt's laboratory work involved experimental studies of
reactions to sensory stimulation.
Introspection was the basic research tool used by ________ in order to study people's inner sensations and mental images.
Edward Titchener
William James was a prominent American
Edward Titchener is to structuralism as William James is to ________.
Behaviorists dismissed the value of
John Watson is to Edward Titchener as ________ is to ________.
observable behavior; inner sensations
Innate ability is to learned skill as ________ is to ________.
nature; nurture
Efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is more heavily influenced by their biology or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate regarding
nature versus nurture.
Charles Darwin attempted to explain the ________ that he had encountered.
species variation
Complementary accounts of the same behavior that can supplement one another represent different
levels of analysis.
Which perspective would help us to understand the impact of strokes and brain diseases on memory?
Which perspective most clearly focuses on how we learn observable responses?
Which psychological perspective is most likely to be concerned with identifying the powers and the limits of human reasoning?
Clinical psychologists specialize in
providing therapy to troubled people.
The specialist most likely to have a medical degree is a
The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to
exaggerate their ability to have foreseen an outcome.
Giving half the members of a group some purported psychological finding and the other half an opposite result is an easy way to demonstrate the impact of
hindsight bias.
The scientific attitude of humility is most likely to be undermined by
hindsight bias.
By testing their predictions by observing human behavior, psychologists are using
an empirical approach.
The simplified reality of laboratory experiments is most helpful in enabling psychologists to
develop general principles that help explain behavior.
Studying people of all races and cultures is most helpful for
discerning human similarities and differences.
In an effort to prevent participants in an experiment from trying to confirm the researchers' predictions, psychologists sometimes
deceive participants about the true purpose of an experiment.
Professor Shalet contends that parents and children have similar levels of intelligence largely because they share common genes. His idea is best described as a(n)
A hypothesis is a(n)
testable prediction that gives direction to research.
A statement describing how a researcher measures a research variable is known as a(n)
operational definition.
The case study is a research method in which
a single individual is studied in great depth.
In which type of research is a representative, random sample of people asked to answer questions about their behaviors or attitudes?
the survey
Which of the following is most useful for helping survey researchers avoid false generalizations?
random sampling
Psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of chimpanzee societies in the jungle are using a research method known as
naturalistic observation.
Correlation is a measure of the extent to which two variables
vary together.
To represent graphically the correlation between two variables, researchers often construct a
A correlation between physical attractiveness and dating frequency of +0.60 would indicate that
less frequent dating is associated with lower levels of physical attractiveness.
A negative correlation between degree of wealth and likelihood of suffering from a psychological disorder would indicate that
people who are poor are more likely to have a psychological disorder than are wealthy people.
On a series of coin tosses, Oleg has correctly predicted heads or tails seven times in a row. In this instance, we can reasonably conclude that Oleg's predictive accuracy
is a random and coincidental occurrence.
Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to distinguish between
causes and effects.
To assess the impact of test difficulty on persistence of effort, researchers plan to give one group of children relatively easy tests and another group more difficult tests. To reduce the chance that the children in one group are more intelligent than those in the other group, the researchers should make use of
random assignment.
Both the researchers and the participants in a memory study are ignorant about which participants have actually received a potentially memory-enhancing drug and which have received a placebo. This investigation involves the use of
the double-blind procedure.
A normal curve would approximate the distribution of
the physical heights of all American women.
As the size of a representative sample increases, the ________ of that sample is most likely to decrease.
standard deviation
Differences between two sample averages are most likely to be statistically significant if
the difference between the samples is large.