Psych Exam 3

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Psych Exam 3

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language
 
largely arbitrary system of communication that combines symbols in rule based ways to create meaning
phonemes
 
sounds of our language (atoms)
morphemes
 
smallest units of speech that are meaningful (molecules) dog, re-
syntax
 
structures grammatical rules that govern how words are composed into meaningful strings
semantics
 
meaning
pragmatics (extra linguistic factors)
 
overall physical experience (context, prior statements by others, nonverbal cues)
babbling
 
intentional vocalizations that lack specific meaning (becomes gradually complex over first year)
pronunciation errors
 
common, usually related to production difficulty with complex sounds
over and under generalization of categories
 
applying the word in a broader or narrower sense than an adult
holophrases
 
single word phrases used in early development to convey an entire thought ("balloon!" for "i want a balloon!")
bilingualism
 
typically one language is dominant, typical vocabulary development
critical periods
 
younger children are superior to adults at learning language
automaticity
 
processing of a stimuli that is automatic and occurring without conscious awareness
stroop effect
 
reading is automatic (list of words and colors)
top down processing
 
brains perceive something that isn't there to fill in the picture
wernicke's aphasia 
 
word "salad", speaking nonsense
broca's aphasia
 
difficulties speaking smoothly and coming up with certain words
schemas
 
categories that organize relations amont actions, objects, ideas
categories
 
groups of objects, actions, characteristics, that share core properties
problem solving
 
generating a cognitive strategy to accomplish a specific goal
mental sets
 
becoming entrenched in a particular generation of an alternative approach
functional fixedness
 
difficulty conceptualizing that an object typically used for one purpose could be used for another
talent
 
innate ability--leads to more practice? 
practice
 
more practice=more achievement?
savant
 
some autistic children demonstrate incredible abilities
fluid intelligence
 
capacity to learn new problems
crystalized intelligence
 
accumulated knowledge of the world over time
analytical intelligence
 
ability to reason logically
practical intelligence
 
ability to solve real world problems, especially people problems
creative intelligence
 
ability to come up with novel and effective answers to questions
divergent thinking
 
the capacity to generate many solutions to problems
multiple intelligences
 
different types of intelligence (linguistic, spatial, etc)
intelligence quotient (IQ)
 
mental age/chronological age x 100
mental age
 
age corresponding to the average individual's performance on an intelligence test
wechsler adult intelligence scale
 
most widely used intelligence test for adults today, consisting of 14 subtests to assess different types of mental abilities
wechsler intelligence scale for children
 
for children between 6-16
delayed development
 
mental retardation, mild retardation
heritability
 
intelligence has correlations between immediately 
birth order effects
 
IQ can decrease with increasing birth order 
mental rotation task
 
men do better than women
developmental psychology
 
study of how behavior changes over time
cross sectional design
 
track of development of the same group of people over time
infant determinism
 
assumption that extremely early experience are more influential in our development than later experiences
teratogen
 
envirnomental factor that can harm development
sucking reflex 
 
automatic behaviors often present at birth 
object permanence
 
knowing an object exists even when you cannot see it
egocentrism
 
inability to see the world from others' persepective
conservation
 
despite transformation, the amount remains the same (liquid, pennies)
scaffolding
 
learning mechanism in which parents provide initial guidance in child's learning then gradually remove structure
zone of proximal development
 
phase of learning during which children can benefit from instruction
stranger anxiety 
 
fear of strangers developing around 8 months, same in all cultures
attachment
 
strong emotional connection we share with those to whom we feel closest
imprinting
 
automatic mimicking of close objects/things early in development
infant bonding
 
harlow's monkeys, monkeys spent more time with cloth mother, other mother only to feed
contact comfort
 
positive emotions afforded by touch
kohlberg's scheme of moral development
 
preconventional morality (whether you'll get caught) conventional morality (against the law, people will look down on him if he doesn't) postconventional morality (protection of humna life is higher than laws, he shouldn't because it violates a basic social contract needed to preserve civilization
gender roles
 
behaviors that tend to be associated with male or female