Psych Exam 3

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Psych Exam 3

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largely arbitrary system of communication that combines symbols in rule based ways to create meaning
sounds of our language (atoms)
smallest units of speech that are meaningful (molecules) dog, re-
structures grammatical rules that govern how words are composed into meaningful strings
pragmatics (extra linguistic factors)
overall physical experience (context, prior statements by others, nonverbal cues)
intentional vocalizations that lack specific meaning (becomes gradually complex over first year)
pronunciation errors
common, usually related to production difficulty with complex sounds
over and under generalization of categories
applying the word in a broader or narrower sense than an adult
single word phrases used in early development to convey an entire thought ("balloon!" for "i want a balloon!")
typically one language is dominant, typical vocabulary development
critical periods
younger children are superior to adults at learning language
processing of a stimuli that is automatic and occurring without conscious awareness
stroop effect
reading is automatic (list of words and colors)
top down processing
brains perceive something that isn't there to fill in the picture
wernicke's aphasia 
word "salad", speaking nonsense
broca's aphasia
difficulties speaking smoothly and coming up with certain words
categories that organize relations amont actions, objects, ideas
groups of objects, actions, characteristics, that share core properties
problem solving
generating a cognitive strategy to accomplish a specific goal
mental sets
becoming entrenched in a particular generation of an alternative approach
functional fixedness
difficulty conceptualizing that an object typically used for one purpose could be used for another
innate ability--leads to more practice? 
more practice=more achievement?
some autistic children demonstrate incredible abilities
fluid intelligence
capacity to learn new problems
crystalized intelligence
accumulated knowledge of the world over time
analytical intelligence
ability to reason logically
practical intelligence
ability to solve real world problems, especially people problems
creative intelligence
ability to come up with novel and effective answers to questions
divergent thinking
the capacity to generate many solutions to problems
multiple intelligences
different types of intelligence (linguistic, spatial, etc)
intelligence quotient (IQ)
mental age/chronological age x 100
mental age
age corresponding to the average individual's performance on an intelligence test
wechsler adult intelligence scale
most widely used intelligence test for adults today, consisting of 14 subtests to assess different types of mental abilities
wechsler intelligence scale for children
for children between 6-16
delayed development
mental retardation, mild retardation
intelligence has correlations between immediately 
birth order effects
IQ can decrease with increasing birth order 
mental rotation task
men do better than women
developmental psychology
study of how behavior changes over time
cross sectional design
track of development of the same group of people over time
infant determinism
assumption that extremely early experience are more influential in our development than later experiences
envirnomental factor that can harm development
sucking reflex 
automatic behaviors often present at birth 
object permanence
knowing an object exists even when you cannot see it
inability to see the world from others' persepective
despite transformation, the amount remains the same (liquid, pennies)
learning mechanism in which parents provide initial guidance in child's learning then gradually remove structure
zone of proximal development
phase of learning during which children can benefit from instruction
stranger anxiety 
fear of strangers developing around 8 months, same in all cultures
strong emotional connection we share with those to whom we feel closest
automatic mimicking of close objects/things early in development
infant bonding
harlow's monkeys, monkeys spent more time with cloth mother, other mother only to feed
contact comfort
positive emotions afforded by touch
kohlberg's scheme of moral development
preconventional morality (whether you'll get caught) conventional morality (against the law, people will look down on him if he doesn't) postconventional morality (protection of humna life is higher than laws, he shouldn't because it violates a basic social contract needed to preserve civilization
gender roles
behaviors that tend to be associated with male or female