PSYCH 3230: Test One

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PSYCH 3230: Test One

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Which of the following is an example of point prevalence?
1% of the population is currently experiencing depressive symptoms.
Which of the following strives to describe the location of genes responsible for mental disorders?
association studies
Who is credited with making the first major steps towards understanding the psychological factors involved in mental illness?
Sigmund Freud
Practically speaking, "abnormal" behavior means
unusual behaviors that are not consistent with the norms of the society in which they are displayed.
One of Freud's major contribution to current perspectives of mental disorders is
the concept of the unconscious and how it can affect behavior.
Compared to the West, Chinese views of mental illness
 began at a more sophisticated level but regressed, like the West, to belief in the supernatural forces - although not for as long or with as negative a reaction to patients. 
 In 1893, Breuer and Freud published a paper on hysteria. In it they announced that
unconscious factors can determine behavior and produce mental disorders
Brett persistently injects himself with pain killers. This has greatly increased his chance of overdosing and dying. His behavior harms no one else. According to the DSM, is Brett's behavior consistent with the definition of a mental disorder?
Yes, because he is persistently acting in a way that harms him.
Why are correlational (observational) research designs often used in abnormal psychology?
It is often unethical or impossible to directly manipulate the variables involved in abnormal psychology.
 All of the following are disadvantages of classifying and diagnosing mental disorders EXCEPT
providing structure.
What does DSM stand for?
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
The loss of a parent may be
a diathesis and/or a stressor.
Which of the following is NOT a culture-bound syndrome?
Children born with a genetic predisposition to be introverted
are likely to be more or less introverted depending on childhood experiences growing up.
Freud's view of mental disorders was that they were a result of
unresolved conflicts between the id, the ego and the superego.
A(n) ________ serves to guide our processing of information and may serve to distort memories.
Who studied how to deal with mentally ill criminals and concluded that such individuals were not responsible for their actions?
 What is Galen credited with?
recognizing that psychological disorders could have both biological and psychological causes 
A contemporary of Pinel's in England who started a Quaker religious retreat for the mentally ill was
William Tuke.
Who was one of the first physicians to reject the idea that mental illness was due to demon possession (although he did believe the moon influenced the brain)?
All of the following were likely to be part of moral treatment in the 1800's EXCEPT
antipsychotic medication.
Which of the following approaches to treatment focuses almost exclusively on physical well-being?
mental hygiene  
Benjamin Rush is credited with all of the following EXCEPT
taking a scientific approach to the study and treatment of mental disorders.
One of Aristotle's most major contributions to psychology was
 his description of consciousness.
The disorder Koro, where males fear that their genitals have retracted into their body, possibly leading to death, is similar to the episodes of mass madness during the Black Death because
both demonstrated the effect that sociocultural stressors can have on mental functioning of large groups of people.
Which of the following may be safely inferred when a significant negative correlation is found between variables x and y?
 as x increases, y decreases 
 A researcher interested in the health problems of people with schizophrenia interviews only those people diagnosed with the disorder who are in an inpatient facility. The most glaring weakness in this study is
nonrepresentative sampling.
 What makes defining abnormality difficult?
There is not a clear dividing line that serves to distinguish different behavior from that which is abnormal
Why would a researcher want to insure that every person in the larger group of study has an equal chance of being included in the sample?
It increases the researcher's ability to generalize findings to the larger group.
Maria believes that her dead grandmother occasionally speaks to her.  In deciding if Maria has a mental illness or not, which of the following is important?
Is Maria's belief consistent with the beliefs of her culture?
What did Seligman find by studying dogs exposed to uncontrollable shock?
Seligman found that uncontrollable shock led the dogs to behave much like depressed humans.
________ are more or less plausible ideas used to explain something (e.g., a behavior) and can be tested using research methods.
A researcher who studies children who are home-schooled and compares them to children who attend school is using the ________ research method.
Comorbidity means
that a person has two or more disorders.
Fred refuses to speak at school, although he speaks normally at home.  His therapist plans out a treatment where Fred is given a gold star every time he answers his teacher, and can then trade in his stars for prizes.  Fred begins speaking in class.  The therapist then tells the teacher to stop the program for a couple of weeks.  Fred stopped talking during that time.  The teacher then starting giving Fred stars again, and Fred again began to talk.  This is an example of
an ABAB experimental design study. 
 In the United States, the standard for defining types of mental disorders is contained in the
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
What is a good control group for a research study on people with eating disorders?
A group that is comparable to those with eating disorders except they eat normally
A researcher says, "These studies make it too easy for investigators to find the background factors they expect to find. However, they are more valid if we find documents like school reports that show the background factor before the disorder emerges." What kind of research strategy is the researcher referring to?
 retrospective strategies
 What does it mean if a disorder is said to be highly prevalent?
 It is common.
In what significant way do observational (correlational) research designs differ from experimental research designs?
There is no manipulation of variables in observational research
Carl is asked to provide information about his drinking.  Despite the fact that he has had several arrests for driving will intoxicated, Carl reports that he has no problems with drinking.  This is an example of
 the problems with self-report data.
What type of prevalence estimate tends to be lowest?
point prevalence
Which one of the following increased the availability of treatment for the mentally ill in the United States?
Dorothea Dix
 In 1983, a large group of West Bank Palestinian girls showed signs of illness. Some thought they were poisoned, but later it was discovered that psychological factors played a key role in most cases. This incident best illustrates
 mass madness.
 Exorcism is
still occasionally practiced today for the treatment of psychological problems, sometimes with fatal results.
Why was malarial therapy effective in treating general paresis?
The fever that was induced killed off the cause of the observed symptoms.
The interpersonal perspective
emphasizes social rather than inner determinants of behavior.
Which of the following is NOT a psychosocial viewpoint?
reuptake of neurotransmitters is
the process by which neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the axon.
According to the DSM, when is deviant behavior viewed as indicative of a mental disorder?
when it is a symptom of a dysfunction in the individual
A psychologist wishes to test the hypothesis that the experience of chronic physical pain can cause clinical depression, but the Ethics Committee of his university won't allow him to conduct a study in which he inflicts pain on the subjects. What kind of research design might best allow the psychologist to test this hypothesis while circumventing the committee's objection?'
The Hill-Burton Act
provided funding for mental health treatment in the community
Which of the following is NOT a common method for studying genetic influences?
the study of specific gene defects
Several studies have found that there is a correlation in children between amount of television watched and weight.  What is one of the problems with using this finding to report that watching lots of television makes children obese?
It is just as possible that being obese causes children to watch more television.
 In the United States, an early treatment involved the belief that
patients needed to choose rationality over insanity and treatments were designed to intimidate patients into choosing correctly.
 After cheating on her husband, Julia accused her husband of cheating on her. Such behavior is explained by which of the following defense mechanism?