Psy 301 Exam One

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Social Psychology

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development is BEST defined as a pattern of growth that:
begins at birth and ends when the person begins to decline due to age
The field of human development is an interdisciplinary body of knowledge based on:
biology, psychology, neuroscience, education, medicine, and other relevant fields
Theories differ from opinions in that:
A theory's continued existence depends on scientific verification.
Piaget's theory of cognitive development proposed that development is
discontinuous, stating that children's perceptions are unique in each stage
According to the newest research on genetics, the ansxwer to the nature-nurture controversy is:
that one's genetic predisposition is influenced constantly by the environment, and can be changed by it
History-graded influences on development are those that:
explain why people born the same year tend to be more alike
The developmental concept that children are neither innately good nor evil, but are shaped by the experiences they have in their lives, is called:
Tabula rasa.
According to Piaget's congnitive-developmental theory,
children actively construct knowledge as they interact with their world
Piaget believed that:
in each stage of development, children have qualitatively distinct ways of understanding the world.
The developmental cognitive neuroscience approach to understanding development asks such questions as:
How do early experiences influence the growth and orginization of the young child's bran?
The greatest advantage of naturalistic observation is that it:
allows investigators to see directly how people actually behave in everyday life
The advantage or correlation research is that it can be used to study:
variables that actually exist, and that would be impossible or unethical to arrange or control experimentally
Random assignment to groups means that:
participants' characteristics or differences will be equally distributed across all treatment groups.
An independent variable is:
the aspect of the environment that the experiemtner manipulates in order to measure its impact on a dependent variable
When the same indi in a study r studied wen they r at 1 age,&then again when they r at a later age,this method of studying change is:
congitudinal study
To examine agechanges in memory strategy use,a resrchr present a group of 567yrolds various mem task 1 a yr for 3 yrs. example of dev study that:
cross-sequential method
the difference between an individual's genotype and hos or her phenotype becomes clear when:
brown-eyed parents have a blue-eyed child
Research shows that humans possess about _____________ genes
20,000 - 25,000
The genetic sex of a baby is determind by
whether and x bearing or y bearing sperm fertilized the ovum
for eyes, brown color is dominant and blue recessive. they have brown eyes and their child has blue, we know that:
they must be carrying a recesive gene for blue eyes
According to typical genetic transmission in which only the father has an autosomal dominant disorder:
each child has a 50% chance of inheriting the disorder
Males are more likely than females to be negatively affected by x linked disorders because
the y chromosome lacks many corresponding alleles to override those carried on the x chromosome
down syndrome is most commonly caused by
failure of the 21st pair of chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis
a zygote that separates into two clusters of cells instead of just one produces
monozygotic or identical twins
this is a prenatal medical procedure where a sample of amniotic fluid is withdrawn by syringe and tested for chromosome or metabolic disorders
of all the prenatal diagnostic procedures, which two are the least invasive to the fetus and thus carry the least risk of injuring the fetus?
maternal blood analysis, ultrasound
a period of the embryo lasts from:
implantation through the eighth week of pregnancy
the age of viability occurs sometime between
22 and 26 weeks
the period of the ______ is the time when the most serious major defects from teratogens are most likely to occur because _____ this time.
embryo; the structural foundations for all organs and body parts are laid down during
exposure to a variety of substances prenatally, especially to illicit drugs, most often results in:
prematurity and low birth weight
the most serious complications for offspring ofwomen who smoke cigarettes throughout pregnancy include:
low birth weigh, infant death, and childhood asthma and cancer
if a prego woman decides to stop smoking during pregnancy,
the benefits are immediate, the fetus gets more oxygen, and is less likely to be born underweight or have other developmental problems
_______ is/are typical of children born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
Mental retardation and learning problems
Children with Fetal Alcohol Effects show:
poor motor coordination, slower speed of information processing, poor judgment, and lower achievement in school.
the average newborn baby weights ____ and is ___ inches long
7.5 ; 20
the APGAR scale rates characteristics of a newborn, including the baby's
heart rate, activity, color, and muscle tone
how did childbirth customs change after industrial revolution
drs assumed primary responsibility,
as a result of the natural birth, or nurse-midwife assisted, childbirth movement,
all of the above
the rooting reflex
helps a breastfed baby turn toward and find the mothers nipple
diane notices that lound sounds causes her baby to arch her back, throw head and arms back and then close them to body. baby exhibiting:
moro reflex
research has shown that breast feeding
provides the infant with the correct balance of fat and protein for a rapidly myelinating nervous system
at birth, the ____ is nearer than any brainother psysical structure to its adult size
the presence of reflexes at birth indicate -,however,when reflexes persist longer than expected,they can signal _
a healthy, intact nervous system p brain damage
studies of children living in extremly deprived romanian orphanages have demonstrated that:
cognitive catch-up growth was most impressive for those children who were adopted before 6 months of age
cross-cultural research shows that
cosleeping is the norm for apporximately 90 perccent of the worlds population
One possible explanation for the high frequency of bed time struggles in american homes is that
young children feel stressed when required to fall asleep alone without comfort or assistance
bottle-fed babies, compared to breast-fed babies:
have more allergic reactions and respiratory and intwestinal illnesses
if a baby first habituates to a green circle, and thenn recovers to habituate again to a blue circle, one can assume that the infant:
can distinguish between green and blue
infants from 2 days to several weeks old are able to imitate a whide variety of adult
facial expressions
rsrchrs agree that an infants cryin is communication,should be responded to,& responding to an infant's cry with comfort or feeding leads to
all of the above
at 6-7 mos,issac can pull himself to a sittin position and drag himself around by his 8-9 mos,he use legs to move forward. this demonstrates
the cephalocaudal trend
at 6 mos, sophia uses her whole hand to grasp objects. by 9 mos, she can reach for a cube with her fingers. this is ex of:
the poximodistal trend
research on hearing demonstrates that newborns:
can distinguish nearly all sounds in human languages
vision reaches a near adult level of about 20/20 by:
6 months
as the result of synaptic pruning,
seldom stimulated neurons lose their synspses
which motor activity typically develops first
grasps a cube
12 mo old landon methodically picks grass and places them in his toy dump truck. he is probably using
the pincer grasp
research has shown when babies are placed on a visual cliff, 2-3 mo babies _ the depth, but 9-11 mos will _ the depth
will fear, no longer fear
research indicates that _____ strengthens neural conncections involved in ____
crawling; understanding of space
which of the following demonstrates intermodal perception
an infant hears the sound of a train and then says the word train