POLI 227 Midterm

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POLI 227 Midterm

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how many people are in the global north and how much global economic resources do we recieve?
1 billion of 7 billion4/5ths of global economic resources
sub saharan life expectancy
increased until 1970s when started to deteriorate because of AIDS
Organization of Economic Cooperation and DevelopmentWestern economies plus south korea, etc
How much of sub saharan africa lives on 1.25 dollars a day
1/2 population
Millennium Goals for 2015
made targets for global development by UN members: east asia has already exceeded goals, africa is behind
Infant Child Mortality
good indicators of health care and nutrition, income distribution-significant improvement in under 5 infant mortality: child immunization
what year did Aids infection rate begin to decrease?
1990s due to education and prevention
1st/2nd/3rd world terminology
comes from cold warfirst world countries on our sidesecond world countries on soviet sidethird world everyone else: non aligned, recently decolonizednow global north/ south
How many people living with AIDS?
10 000 000
Newly Industrializing Countries
Least Developing Countries
highly indebted poor countries
absolute size of countries econ divided by amount of people, see how much each person has GDP/Capitadollar does not buy you same amount: GNP/Capita suggests greater poverty than actuality because of currency inequalities
purchasing power parityadjusts economic number to reflect purchasing powerincome is not distributed equally so not accurate
physical quality of life index: no longer used
human development index: indicators of health,e ducation, purchasing power-number ranges from O to 1-relies heavily on health and education-doesnt say anything about gender disparities
Gini Coefficient
measure of income inequalityranges from 1 (equality) to 0 -highest of 2010: Norwaylowest: Zimbabwe
South africa and Brazil in relation to HDi and GNI
worse HDI's than GNI's would indicate
HDI higher than GDI
middle east
higher HDI ranking than GNP/capita ranking 
some post soviet
what countries were never fully colonized?
Saudi Arabia, Iran
socio economic challenges
lower levels of industrialization- dependency on raw materialspoorer social conditionsimperatives of economic growth and redistribution
New state structures have...
weaker, less effective institutionspolitical instabilityproblems of national integrationlack of international power and leverage
statistical method
large nproblems of data and relevance
comparative method
small n, qualitativeprocess tracing actual politics at work, because sample size is smaller, might be case selection doesnt workless generalizable
single case study
least generalizable much more sensitive to historical and cultural context
size and number of poltical parties in competitive multi party systems is primarily shaped by
social cleavages and electoral systems
what is suggested by captain F.D. Lugard in the reading on the rise of our east african empire
-colonialism was important for british commericial and trading interests-medical and industrial missions are the most useful, because they strengthen european influence and improve local productivity-europeans should always maintain an air of superiority
according to clapham, french colonial policy tended to 
favour assimilation, and rarely used indirect mechanisms of colonial rule
shift from subsistence agriculture to cash crops
-involved a shift from production for consumption to production for sale-encouraged during the colonial era as a way of meeting european demands for raw materials and agricultural goods-rendered agriculture producers more vulnerable to market fluctuations-the trend continued after decolonization
what facilitated decolonization in latin america
-growing autonomy of local white elites-napoleonic wars-british policy-US policy (Munroe Doctrine)
in latin america, colonial penetration was often led by
in asia, colonial penetration was led by
semi official european trading companies
in Africa, colonial penetration was led by 
slave traders
Huntington argues that political instability arises from 
social mobilization and growing political demands that overwhelm weak political institutions
according to clapham, parochial corruption is 
small scale, fits in with existing values and obligations, and redistributes resources within a community
characteristics of indirect colonial rule
cheaper and easier than direct administrationused more by britain than francealienated urban intellectualscolonial support for local rulers weakened local accountability
India, Indonesia, and Indochina colonized by
Britain, Netherlands, and France
european colonialism in the americas characterized by 
thoroughness and brutality with which it destroyed indigenous societiessubstantial european settlement in many areasearlier transitions to independence
anti colonial nationalist movements engaged in linkage politics in order to 
build broad coalitions from among varied grievances
what do rhodesia namibia western sahara and east timor all have in common
all were cases where decolonization was delayed, suspended, unresolved
taxation policy in developing countries tends to develop in what order?
customs duties than business taxes than personal income tax
although tunisia, morocco, and algeria are all culturally similar, what is different?
Tunisia has gender equalityMorocco is conservativeand algeria is in between
developmental approach focuses on
historical process of interrelated social changesexpansion of educationgrowth in communication and transporteconomic change, industrializationsocial and cultural change
Huntington on political order in changing societies
modernization led to social mobilization and new demandscapabilities and institutionsnew demands and capacities in political systems, demands outstripped capabilities 
Underdevelopment approach thinks developments are wrong to
suggest one dynamic for political and economic development: ethnocentric
in underdevelopment theory, third world is locked into inferior position
politically and economically subordinate to west1. dependence of third world countries on raw material exports2. terms of trade "unequal exchange"3. first worlds control of advanced tech4. operation of first world multinational corporations5. international debt
what is the center periphery or metropolis satellite relationship
in third world societiescomprador elite: small wealthy bourgeoisie with transnational ties to first world business interestslarge mass of urban and rural poorpoles of development and underdevelopment
for dependency theorists, 3rd world is:
nature of relationship with west and world capitalist market, domestic class struggle
characteristics of pre colonial societies
-rural agrarian societies (90 percent of population), village centered, subsistence based-high birth and death rates-feudal-decentralized, parochial
expansion of colonial rule In Latin America?what type? By who? by when was it controlled?
conquest, followed by tradespanish and portuguese, forts and ports on coast17th century, most of latin america controlled
Colonial rule in North America
conquest, then trade-by french and british-caribbean as well
Characteristics of colonialism in Americas
-brutal-forcibly catholocized, vulnerable to disease -decimation of indigenous population-growing numbers of black slaves transported to latin america to extract gold and silver, later plantation crops
Expansion of Colonial Rule: Asiawho? 
trade followed by conquestportuguese, dutch (east Indies), British (control of India), France (Indochina)
expansion of colonial rule in africa?
initial colonization of coast