Nutrition Final Exam - '10

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Which nutrient contains the most calories per gram?
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans include all of the following except
don't drink alcohol
Three ounces of cooked meat could be represented as
deck of cards
A person’s choice to order a non-meat dish when dining with a group of vegetarian friends is an example of a
Social Fa
Compounds that help plants resist the attacks of bacteria and fungi, the ravages of free radicals, and increased levels of ultraviolet light from the sun are
Which of the following is not a primary factor influencing decisions about what we eat?
A grain product with added thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, and iron to replace those nutrients lost or diminished in food processing is
 How many grams of carbohydrate are in a product that contains 160 calories from carbohydrates?
 Using leavening agents, such as baking soda, to help baked goods rise during baking is an example of a
direct additive
Which influence on food choices is most closely related to religion, beliefs, and traditions?
Lycopene is commonly found in
tomato sauce
Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are considered
Ingredients on food labels should be listed in order of
decending order by weight
Which are the fat-soluble vitamins?
Vitamin A, D, E, K
The main cause of diverticulosis is due to a diet
High in fats and low in fiber
What is the difference between the Food Guide Pyramid and the MyPyramid food guidance system?
guidelines re-enforce physical activity
The starches and sugars found in grains, vegetables, legumes, and fruits are
The organization responsible for the food label is the
The passage of nutrients and other substances into the walls of the gastrointestinal tract, and then into the bloodstream is called
A substance continually produced in our cells that, over time, may cause damage to DNA and other important cell structures is known as a
Free Radical
How many kilocalories are in 21 grams of fat?
The MyPyramid tool
encourages personalization as well as variety, proportionality, and moderation
Which is not a “red flag” of inaccurate or exaggerated science?
recommended by a peer review journal
The breaking apart of foods into smaller and smaller units is called
A series of muscular contractions that divides and mixes chyme within the small intestine is called 
The sugar alcohols include
xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, and lactitol
According to the text, GRAS means
generally recognized as safe
The __________________ states that food additives cannot be approved if they cause cancer in humans or animals.
Delaney Clause
Which of the following is a graphic representation of a food guidance system that supports the principles of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?
What are the characteristics of a good vitamin?
Essential nutrients must be obtained through..
 _____________ take up stations in tissues and act as scavengers, devouring pathogens and worn-out cells.
Percent Daily Values (PDV) represent a _______ calorie/day diet.
Which nutrient is not required to be posted on the Nutrition Facts panel?
All of the following are considered cognitive influences on food choices except
religious rituals
Calcium-fortified orange juice, breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid, and yogurt with live active cultures are all examples of
foods enhanced with functional ingredients
Which of the following is not a function of the GI tract? 
exchange of oxygen within the blood vessels
The majority of digestion occurs in the
Failure of the _______________ sphincter will cause food to slide from the stomach back into the esophagus.
The preventive or therapeutic use of high-dose vitamins to treat disease is called:
orthomolecular medicine
Protein, fat, and ___________ are the macronutrients.
What are the parts of the small intestine?
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
Most fat-soluble nutrients are absorbed in the
lymphatic system
General functions of the six classes of nutrients include all of the following except
adding flavor to food
Which diet consists of whole-grain cereals and vegetables, a small amount of fish, and no other meats or fruits?
The taste, smell, and presentation of food have a _____________ influence on food digestion.
Dietary standards used to compare the amount of nutrients in a serving of food to the amount recommended for daily consumption are called
Daily Values
The primary function of the _______________ is to store and concentrate bile from the liver.
Define undernutrition and overnutrition.
Undernutrition is a condition in which some food is being consumed, but the intake is not nutritionally adequate. Today, undernutrition is most often associated with extreme poverty, alcoholism, illness, and some types of eating disorders. Overnutrition is the chronic consumption of more than is necessary for good health. Overnutrition is the regular consumption of excess calories, fats, saturated fats, or cholesterol.
The six classes of nutrients in foods are:
a.     lipids            d.   vitamins
    b.     water            e.    protein
    c.     minerals        f.     carbohydrates
List the organs (in order, starting with the mouth) that make up the GI tract.
1. Mouth
2. Esophagus
3. Stomach
4. Small intestine
5. Large intestine
6. Rectum
Describe how the salivary glands assist in digestion.
Salivary glands moisten food, lubricating it for easy swallowing. Saliva also contains enzymes that start the process of chemical digestion.
What are phytochemicals and how do they benefit plants and humans?
Phytochemicals are substances in plants that may promote good health, even though they are not essential for life. Phytochemicals are complex chemicals, and include thousands of compounds, pigments, and natural antioxidants, many of which have been associated with protection from heart disease, hypertension, cancer, and diabetes. Plants contain phytochemicals in abundance because these substances are of benefit to the plant itself. For example, phytochemicals may resist attacks of bacteria and fungi on the plant.