Nutrition Chapter 4: Carbohydrates

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Nutrition Chapter 4: Carbohydrates


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one of the three classes of macronutrients; a compound made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen that is derived from plants and provides energy
-primary energy source esp for nerve cells and red blood cells
CHO family consists of - simple sugars- complex carbohydrates (starch) aka polysaccharides --> 4kcal/g- total fibre --> 2kcal/gram
RDA = 130g/day --> just supply brain
the most abundant sugar molecule; a monosaccharide generally found in combination with other sugars. The preferred source of enery for the brain and an important source of all energy for all cells
the process by which plants use sunlight to fuel a chemical reaction that combines carbon dioxide and hydrogen atoms from water into glucose, which is then stored in the plants' cells.
Simple carbohydrate
commonly called simple sugar or just sugar; a monosaccharide or disaccharide, such as glucose
the simplest of carbohydrates. consists of one sugar molecule, the most common form of which is glucose
a carbohydrate compound consisting of two sugar molecules joined together
the sweetest natural sugar; a monosaccharide that occurs in fruits and vegetables. Also called levulose, or fruit sugar
a monosaccharide that joinds with glucose to create lactose, one of the three most common disaccharides
also called milk sugar, a disaccharide consisting of one glucose molecule and one galactose molecule. Found in milk, including human breast milk
a disaccharide consisting of two molecules of glucose. Does not generally occur independently in foods but results as a byproduct of digestion. Also called malt sugar.
a disaccharide composed of one glucose molecule and one fructose molecule. Sweeter than lactose or maltose. Also called table sugar
Complex carbohydrate
·         a nutrient compound such as starch, glycogen, or fibre, consisting of long chains of glucose molecules.
A complex carbohydrate consisting of long chains of glucose
a polysaccharide stored in plants; the storage form of glucose in plants
a polysaccharide stored in animals; the storage form of glucose in animals
dietary fibre
the ingestible carbohydrate parts of plants that form the support structures of leaves, stems, and seeds
Functional fibre
the ingestible forms of carbohydrate that are extracted from plants or manufactured in a laboratory and have known health benefits
Total fibre
the sum of dietary fibre and functional fibre
Soluble fibre
natural pactins, mucilages, and gums that absorb water and form gels. In humans, these substances slow down the movement of material through the small intestine
Insoluble fibre
components of plants that attract and cling to water. In humans, these substances speed up the movement of material through the large intestine
Salivary amylase
an enzyme in saliva that breaks starch into smaller particles and eventually into the disaccharide maltose
Pancreatic amylase
an enzyme secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine that digests any remaining starch into maltose
a digestive enzyme that digests maltose into glucose
a digestive enzyme that digests sucrose into glucose and fructose
a digestive enzyme that digests lactose into glucose and galactose
hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas in response to increased blood levels of glucose. facilitates uptake of glucose by body cells
hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas in response to decreased blood levels of glucose. causes breakdown of liver stores of glycogen into glucose
Glycemic index
rating of the potential of foods to raise blood glucose levels
Glycemic Load
GI x Grams of Carbs consumed / 100
the process by which the breakdown of fat during fasting results in the production of ketones
substances produced during the breakdown of fat when carb intake is insufficient to meet energy needs. Provide an alternative energy source for the brain when glucose levels down
a condition in which excessive ketones are present in the blood, causing the blood to become very acidic, which alters basic body function and damages tissues. Untreated ketoacidosis can be fatal. This condition is found in individuals with untreated diabetes mellitus
the generation of glucose from the breakdown of proteins into amino acids
Added sugars
sugars and syrups that are added to food during processing or preparation
Nutritive sweeteners
sweeteners such as sucrose, fructose, honey, and brown sugar, that contribute energy
Non-Nutritive sweeteners
also called alternative sweeteners; manufactured sweeteners that provide little or no energy
Acceptable daily intake (ADI)
estimate by Health Canada of amount of non-nutritive sweetener that someone can consume everyday over a lifetime without adverse effects
Diabetes mellitus
a chronic disease in which the body can no longer regulate glucose levels in the blood
Type 1 diabetes
a disorder in which the body cannot produce enough insulin
type 2 diabetes
a progressive disorder in which body cells become less responsive to insulin
a condition in which fasting blood glucose levels are above normal but below the level used to diagnose type 2 diabetes; also called impaired fasting glucose
Metabolic syndrome
a syndrome characterized by high blood pressure, abnormal glucose and insulin levels, imbalance of blood fats, and large waistlines. It is strongly linked to diabetes and heart disease.
a condition marked by glucose levels that are below normal levels
Lactose intolerance
a disorder in which the body does not produce sufficient lactase enzyme and therefore cannot digest foods that contain lactose, such as cows milk and fresh cheese. 
T or FpPasta, bread & potatoes are good sources of complex CHOs? pLettuce, onions & celery are high in dietary fiber? pCooking vegetables destroys their fiber content?
T, F, F