Nutrition - Chapter 2 : Carbohydrates

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Nutrition - Chapter 2 : Carbohydrates

Chapter 2: Ca Rbhoydra

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Do proteins and alcohol offer any advantage to the body as fuel ?
What does the brain and nervous system depend on almost exclusively as a source for fuel ?
Do fats provide fuel ?
Somewhat, but not normally used for brain and nervous system
What are dietary carbohydrates?
Simple sugars, starch, and fiber
What is another word for simple sugars?
What are the two types of simple sugars?
Monosaccharides & Dissaccharides
What is the chemist view of starch and fiber?
What are the three types of monosaccharides?
glucose, fructose, and galactose
What is insulin's role with glucose?
moves glucose from blood to cells, cells use glucose for fuel
what is glucagon's role with glucose ?
brings glucose out of storage
which carbohydrate do the brain and nervous system rely on exclusively ?
what are the two mose common monosaccharides in nature?
glucose and fructose
Galactose is...
primarily occurs as apart of lactose, known as milk sugar, and freed from lactose as single sugar during digestion
what are the three types of disaccharides ?
sucrose, lactose, and maltose
what do enzymes do with disaccharides during digestion ?
They split disaccharides into two monosaccharides
Sucrose is composed of what two monosaccharides ?
glucose and fructose
Lactose is composed of what two monosaccharides?
galactose and glucose
Maltose is composed of what two monosaccharides?
glucose and glucose
The breakdown of starch produces what disaccharide?
Digestion of maltose in plants includes ...
the breakdown of stored starch for energy and they begin to sprout
what are the three major polysaccharides?
starch, glycogen, and fiber
polysaccharide chains are composed almost entirely of ...
What is the storage form of glucose in plants ?
What is the storage form of energy for humans and animals ?
what is the function of fiber in plants ?
provide structure in stems, trunks, roots, leaves, and stems of plants
All Starchy foods are ...
Grains, legumes, and root vegetables(tubers) are types of
Where is gylcogen stored in humans and animals?
in the liver and muscles
What food soruces is glycogen found in and not in ?
Found in limited amounts in meats, not found in plant sources
How much energy does fiber yield for the body?
None. Digestive enzymes cannot break its bonds.
Fiber is made up of what type of carbohydrate?
Insoluble fibers do not dissolve in water and retain their...
structure and texture
Some bacteria in the GI tract may digest fiber which may...
yield some energy with metabolism (1.5-2.5 kcal/g)
Which fiber is associated with low risks of chronic diseases?
Soluble fiber
What do soluble fibers do in the GI tract?
They form gels that are easily digested by bacteria in the large intestine
What do insoluble fibers do in the GI tract?
Ease elimination
Which types of carbs should predominate the diet ?
fiber-rich carbs
There is a worldwide trend in increasing a.fiber consumption b. sugar consumption...?
b. sugar consumption
____________ should be treated as discretionary kcalories -
concentrated sweets and added sugars (dietary guidelines)
No more than ___% of kcalories should come from added sugars
10 (World Health Organization)
Moderate amts of sugar have no health risk, but excessive amounts cause tooth decay and nutrient deficiencies. Who is responsible for this conclusion ?
Empty k-calorie/ added sugars contain _______ but few_________
glucose & energy, but few nutrients
Foods with natural sugars, starches, and fiber deliver
protein, vitamins, minerals, glucose, and energy
Sugar contributes to nutrient deficiencies by...
displacing other nutrients
Which carbs promote bacterial growth in the mouth ( tooth decay) ?
sugars and starches
Populations with < ___% kcal of sugars have low reports of dental caries.
10 %
The 5 factors that contibute to the development of dental caries are
1. how long the food stays in the mouth 2. if teeth are brushed following consumption 3. how sticky the food is 4. composition of the food 5. how often the person eats the food
What is the relationship between sugar and obesity ?
sugar supports obesity, but does not directly cause it
What are some factors that may support obesity in relation to sugars
increased sugar intake= greater consumption of kcalories, weight gain= decline in physical activitiy, contribution of sugar to excessive energy intake may indirectly cause obesity
What is the relationship between behavior and sugar?
No evidence that sugar causes hyperactive or aggressive behavior,  however the lack of nutrients replaced by sugary foods may cause behavioral problems
Sugar should be moderated so that there is enough for _______ but not too much that it________________.
pleasure, replaces nutrient dense foods
Dietary Guidelines suggest foods and beverages with...
little added sugars and that the sugar is categorized as discretionary kcalories.
USDA suggests ___ tsp of sugar for ea. kcal respectively 1600, 1800, 2000, 2200, 24000
Three forms of 1 tsp of white sugar equivalents are....
1. 1 tsp of brown sugar, candy, jam or syrup 2. 1 tbsp ketchup 3. 1.5 tbsp carbonated soft drink
In regards to sugar, the comparison of an orange vs honey is...
1. same sugars 2. orange is more nutrient dense
Sugar sweetened soft drinks contain few ____ but many.______ 
nutrients, but many tbsp of added sugar
Sugar alcohols occur naturally in ___
What are side effects of sugar alcohols ?
Abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and gas
Sugar alcohols yeild less energy than this type of disaccharide
Among the alternative sweeters, which are nutritive and nonnutritive ?
nutritive- sugar alcohols , nonnutritive - artificial sweeteners
Alternative sweeteners do not promote...
tooth decay
Sugar Alcohols are manufactured in order to
add sweetness and bulk
Artificial sweeteners are not _____ and yield ______
carbs, and yield no energy
Name 5 U.S. approved artificial sweeteners
aspartame, tagatose, saccharin, succralose, neotame
Which artificial sweetener is not safe for people with PKU ?
Which Artifiical sWeetener is 200 times more sweet than sucrose ?
Which artificial sweetener is an active ingredient in nutrasweet and equal ?
Aspartame health risk showed _____ in documentary and should be maintained in ____ mg/day
no long term health risk, 50
What is the relationship between artificial sweeteners and weight control?
Widely used to control weight,  some studies show they may cause hunger, but proven the opposite,  does not control weight alone (activity and restrictions must also come into play) 
Dietary Guidelines recommend __ cups of fruits and veggies, __ oz of whole grains, on a ____kcal diet
4.5, 3, 2000
Fiber promotes a feeling  of ________ because it __________
fullness, absorbs water
What is the result of excessive fiber intake and limited fluid intake?
obstruction of the GI tract
List 3 harmful effects of excessive fiber intake
fiber may bind with minerals and excrete causing a loss of minerals, too much fiber may cause deficiency in other nutrients , and dehydration
How much carbs are recommended?
45-65% of energy intake
How much fiber is recommended ?
11.5 g/1000 kcal diet, 20-35 g/day
List 4 ways of achieving fiber intake
1. drink water to ensure its effectiveness 2. substitue some plant sources for meat sources 3. consume recommended amounts of fiber 4. seek out variety of fiber sources 
what are some food sources of carbs
grains, veggies, fruits, milk, cheese, yogurt, meat, poultry, fish, legumes, eggs, and nuts
List 4 authorized health claims .
Reduced risk of cancer and coronary heart disease