Nutrition 101 - Exam 3 Metabolism And DASH (Part 3 Of 3)

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Nutrition 101 - Exam 3 Metabolism And DASH (Part 3 Of 3)

Covers Chapters 7-12 In The Science Of Nutrition Textbook With Emphasis On Metabolism, DASH Diet, And Other Useful Bits Of Information.

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What does DASH stand for?
Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension.
What does the DASH diet emphasize?
Increased potassium, magnesium, and calicum intake with reduced sodium intake.
Historically what type of diet did Americans eat and how did this affect rates of hypertension?
Historically people ate low sodium and high potassium diets which lowered rates of hypertension. Most Americans now eat diets high in sodium and low in potassium.
Where does the sodium in our diet come from?
Food processing accounts for 75% of the salt in our diet, whereas natural sources and cooking account for just 10% and 15%.
How many serving of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, milk, meat and legumes does the DASH diet recommend?
7-8 whole grains, 2-3 dairy, 4-5 veggie, 4-5 fruit, 4-5 legumes weekly, and less than 2 meat a week.Result: Within 2 weeks lower blood pressure.
All dietary carbohydrate, fat, and protein can break down to what common compound?
Acetyl CoA, which can enter the TCA cycle,
Acetyl CoA only enters the TCA cycle when?
When the cell needs more energy.
Most ATP (energy) is produced in which part of the energy pathway?
The electron transport chain or ETC.
Why does dietary fat provide more energy than carbohydrates or proteins?
Because it provides more hydrogen. The more hydrogen, the more ATP produced.
If eaten in excess carbohydrates, fat, protein will produce and/or increase what two things?
It will produce triglycerides stored as adipose tissue and/or increase cholesterol levels.
What is the name of the metabolic pathway that converts glucose to pyruvate and where does it occur?
Glycolysis occurs anearobically (without air) in the cytoplasm of the cell.
During times when oxygen is unavailable pyruvate is converted to what via what metabolic pathway?
Pyruvate is converted to lactic acid via the Cori Cycle. It accumulates in the muscles due to limited clearance of Co2.
If oxygen is available what compound is pyruvate converted to and via what pathway?
Pyruvate is aerobically converted to acetyl CoA which the Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) Cycle which occurs in the mitochondria.
Pyruvate can convert to what compounds and acetyl CoA can't convert to what compounds?
Pyruvate can convert to glucose or acetyl CoA, but Acetyl CoA can't convert to glucose or pyruvate.
The TCA cycle produces what?
Water, carbon dioxide, ATP, H2O, and provides hydrogen atoms for the ETC.
What determines the amount of ATP produced from the ETC?
The amount of hydrogen atoms that enter the ETC.
Triglycerides are broken down into what by which metabolic process?
Triglycerides are broken into glycerol, and fatty acids which are taken apart 2 carbons at a time by fatty acid oxidation which becomes acetyl CoA.
Can glycerol and fatty acids make glucose?
No. Glycerol can, but fatty acids cannot.
Protein must first be what before entering the energy pathway?
Enzymes must first deaminate (remove nitrogen groups) amino acids.
Deanimation produces what compund which is expelled from the body as what?
Keto acid can make other amino acids or be execreted as urea in urine.
What is a glucogenic acid?
An amino acid which can enter the energy cycle between glucose and pyruvate.
What is ketogenic acid?
An amino acid that can enter the energy pathway as acetyl CoA.
Amino acids converted to pyruvate can go up to make what and down to make what?
They can go up to make glucose or down to make acetyl CoA.
Is it true that amino acids as acetyl CoA continues through the ETC the same as fats and carbohydrates?
What are the 4 components of blood?
Erthrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), platelets (cell fragments which help blood clotting), and plasma (the fluid portion of the blood).
What is Microcytic anemia?
A form of anemia manifested as the production of smaller than normal red blood cells containing insufficient hemoglobin, which reduces ability to transport oxygen.
What is Pernicious anemia?
This amenia occurs at the end of an autoimmune disorder that causes loss of cells in stomach and destroys nerve cells resulting in loss of coordination, irritability, confusion, depression, and paranoia.
What are the body's generalized and specialized defense systems against foriegn invaders?
The nonspecific immune response amd specific immune response.
What are B cells and T cells
B cells: A type of white blood cell that can become either antibody-producing plasma cells or memory cells that originates in bone marrow and lymph nodes (lymphocytes). Plasma cells produce thousands of antibodies, proteins that attach to recognized antigens.T cells: These white blood cells originate in bone marrow. They become cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells. Cytotoxic T cells kill infected body cells to prevent spread. Help T cells secrete chemicals needed to activate other immune cells (B cells and cytotoxic T Cells) and help them multiply.
What is cortical bone?
Cortical bone (compact bone) is dense bone tissue that makes up the outer surface of our bones, about 80% of the skeleton.
What is trabecular bone?
Trabecular bone (spongy bone) is porous bone tissue that makes of 20% of the skeleton and is found within long bones.
What's a free radical and what protects the body from them?
Free radicals are highly unstable atoms with unpaired electrons which steal electrons from other cells creating a chain reaction. Antioxidants are compounds that have the ability to prevent or repair oxidative damage.