Normal Development Of Speech & Language

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Exam I

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Definitions of Speech and Language
Langugage is how you put it together, Speech is more motor sound related.
Is the Set of abstract symbols and rule governed structures
Oral expression of language
Grammar related- ways we put words in a sentence.
Internal organization of words
How we make words according to sounds
Meaning of words
The use of language (conversational skills)
Syntax, morphology, phonology
Outer Ear
(Collects noise)
-External Auditory Meatus/Ear Canal

Middle ear
(Air filled) (impedance matching)
-Tympanic Membrane/ear drum
Inner Ear
(fluid filled)
- semicircular canals (controls balance and equilibrium)
- Cochlea (hearing
  . cilia
Functions of the 4 brain lobes
- Frontal Lobe: Reasoning, Personality is usually housed here.
- Parietal Lobe: Touch, visuospatial skills
- Temporal Lobe: Sound discrimination, smell and short term memory
-Occipital Lobe: Vision
Important Areas for Speech and Language
- Wernicke's Area: Located in the Temporal lobe, comprehension
- Broca's Area: Located in the Frontal lobe, expressive Language
- Primary Motor Cortex
- Primary Auditory Cortex
- Diaphram flattens
-Ribs move outwards
-Sternum moves up and outward
-lungs expand with air
- Muscles relax in passive breathing
- every 12-15 times a minute you take a breath

-increased power needed for speech
- little inhilation followed by long exhalation during speech
- speaking has to do with timing of your breath
ABduction and ADDuction of Vocal Folds
Abduction: open
Adduction: Closed
Cycle of Vocal Fold Vibration
- Vocal folds adduct to restrict airflow from lungs
-Air pressure builds up beneath vocal folds
- Vocal folds are blown apart with air moving up into the pharynx
-decreased pressure below vocal folds
-vocal folds snap back together

**Average: Male voice: 130 vibrations/seconds
                    Female voice: 230 vibrations/seconds
Function of the Velum
Closes when swallowing so food doesnt go out your noise.

When velum raises is closes of velar sounds
Places of articulation
- alveolar ridge
- teeth
- hard palate
-soft palate
Concept of nature vs nurture in Language acquisition
(biological basis for language)
-genetic lines
-similar process among children

(interaction with the environment)
If children were not exposed to the environment would they still learn language? (Genie article)   

(operant condition)
Skinner came up with operant conditioning (we learn thru rewards and punishment)

Shaping is when a child's 1st words( wawa) are shaped into adult production(water)

Chaining is the combining of words
(Transformational Generative Grammar)

Langugage Acquisition Device introduced by chomsky is the mental innate period which enables an infant to acquire and produce language.

Transformational generative grammar
-Deep structure: pictures we see it in our heads
-Surface structure: how we say it
Generative Semantics
Cases- Noun Phrase

1. Agentive: initiator of the action
EX: Sally kicked the ball

2. Dative: Who is receiving the action
EX: John hit the ball

3. Experiencer: animate person that experiences the action of the verb.
EX: Jill loved the play

4. Factitive: Something that is being created by the action of the verb
Ex: I wrote the poem

5. Instrumental: Inanimate  object that is means by which an action occurs
EX: I wrote the poem with a pen

6. Locative: Where something is located
EX: She wenr to the mall

7. Objective: object being the action
EX: sally kicked the ball
Cognitive Theory
Introduced by piaget In the sensorimotor period (0-2years) where language is the product of cognition

Information processing Theory
Brain is Like a computer. You take in, convert into symbolic code, store in memory and retrieve when needed. 
Pragmatic Theory
language use is the vehicle in which we learn it. We use language for a purpose. There are 3 speech acts;
-locutionary acts: what you say
-illoctionary act: your meaning
-perloctionary act: the way the listener takes it
Social Interactionist theory
biological and environmental factors in lang. acq. 
language is a result of social communication
Parent child interaction forms the base for conversational interaction.

Joint attention:
-infant vocalization
-eye contact
-turn taking
- motherese

- different in speech of adults with children
-short simple sentences
-talk about objects child is attending too
-repeat child's utterances
-repeat their own utterances
-increased pitch, exaggeration intonation
-pauses between utterances
Piaget (schemas,assimilation,accomodation,distancing)
Scehmas: categories of knowledge (zoo animals, pet animals)
Assimilation: how they bring information and put it into a schema.
Accomodation: Making new schemas to accomodate the new information

Distancing: The perceptual principle that lays the foundation for cognition language. Infants need maximum imput to understand objects. (touch,taste,smell) As child grows, relates to objects at greater and greater distance wl less sensory.

Sub Stage 1
-0-1 month
-relexive actions (crying,sucking)
-no differentiation between self and objects

sub stage 2
1-4 months
-look at objects
-turn eyes toward sounds
-imitation:will copy vocalization (cooing)
communication: cries are more differentiated
sub stage 3
4-8 months
-Object permanance begins to develp, they reach for objects if it falls away(not if out of sight)
-casuality- baby thinks there in control of all things
-Means-end- does not make plans but repeats a activity after initiated for them
-play- they interact wl other people and are interested in toys (bang)
-communication- make consonants, they can convey emotion and around 6-8 months they babble
substage 4
-8-12 months
object permanence- look for hidden objects and understand spatial dimensions (upside down cup)
Casuality- less ego centric and understands that other people cause actions
Means end- plan behaviors (and can achieve goals)
Imitation: imitates actions not yet produced (waves byebye)
play: increase understanding of toys
Communication: may produce 1st words
communicates purposefully w/ gestures and vocally
Substage 5
12-18 months
Object permanence is almost complete, sequential displacement (looks for thingds in places theyve looked for before)
Casuality- sees other people as agents
Means-end: starting to solve problems
Imitation: will imitate sounds, actions well
Play: studies and discovers function of toys
Communication: 1st words, single utterances
Substage 6
18-24 months
object permanence is fully developed
casuality- able to solve problems
Means end: able to identify goals and plan strategies to achieve goals
Imitation: deferred imitation
Play: pretend play
communication: putting 2 words together
Private Speech
Represents an early transition in becoming more socially communicative. 

Ex: when they are playing they are really working things out. 
- ex doll house playing
Zone of Proximal Development(ZPD)
Children's social development with more skilled adults and peers is critical to cognitive development. ( someone skilled teaching us)

lower limit of ZPD the child can do independtly  w/ no help
higher limit of ZPD the child needs assistance
Changing the level of support/ guidance