New Testament, Exam #2, Study Guide Questions

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New Testament, Exam #2, Study Guide Questions

Study Guide Questions

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Who is Polycarp
Followed Jesus his whole life. He would not recant of his belief of Jesus so he was martyerd. Polycarp recieved and sent letters that include a significant portion of the N.T. gospels and epistles. Shows that they were accepted books and that they were familiar to audience
What books of the Bible are missing from Polycarp's letters
1 Thessolonians and Philemon
Slightly older then Polycarp.
Meaning of the word, "Diadache"
Greek for teaching. 
Purpose of Diadache
A summary of the 12 apostles and their teachings. It is not canon and does not claim to be as it uses the phrase, "the gospel says..."
Heretic at the time of canonization
Life of Marcion
Christian upbringing, was sent to a gnostic school, where he learned that we must obtain special knowledge, the secret of salvation and knowledge is what salvation is based on. He was excommunicated from the Church.
Meaning of, "Tertuallion"
against Marcion
Purpose of Tertuallion
written to explain the bad doctrine of Marcion. This provides us with a good and accurate description of what happened. 
What we know about Marcion's doctrine
He had a belief in two gods, the god of wrath from the Old Testament, and the god of grace from the New Testament. Jesus was not born of a virgin birth (this would be physical). He like Christians believed that salvation was by faith alone. He threw out all of the Old Testament and anything relation the O.T. in the New Testament. He edited a lot of the Bible to fit into his views on how "Christians" should live. 
Marcion view on Christian life
asectic life, meaning celebacy, no marriage, etc.
Why we have a canon
because Marcion made a false one. Our canon is a reaction to Marcion's edited version of the Bible, what he thought was canon.
Four different types of manuscripts
P52, P45, P46, Sinactics
the physical original text. We don't have any of these. Which is probably good because we would idolize them!
Meaning of "P" in the P manuscripts
P meaning, papyrus, the material used to write on in this time period.
The number is irrelevant. It is a fragment of the book of John. Came from a codex (book) which makes viewing it a lot easier.
A larger selection, we have portions of all 4 gospels. Accurately date to 3rd Century.
Earliest Pauline document, including 10 letters of Paul and Hebrews. 
Contains some of the O.T. and most of the N.T. found in the Sinide peninsula
Definition of, Uncial
all capital letters
Definition of Lengua Continua
no spaces between wording. Easy to see because of Greek regular endings. 
Definition of Lectionaries
portions of scripture. Organized for everyday scripture reading.
Definition of Hermaneutics
to interpret, translate and explain
4 Rules of Hermaneutics (in order)
#1 - the Bible is entirely truthful and authoratative in all it teaches. #2 - Notice the historical setting. How would the original audience have understood it? #3 - What is the literary genre? #4 - What di the words and phrases mean?
General Rule for Hermaneutics
Keep things in context. Time, history, genre, semantics, etc.
Non-Christian Sources of history of Jesus
Tacitus and Josephus
Roman write. Has given one statement about Jesus, "he was a cult leader, executed and lived during the time of Pilate and Tiberius, he is the originator of Christianity." Key to see that he didn't question Jesus' existence.
Jewish historian. Explains Jewish traditons and culture to Roman audience. Writes with a more positive view of Jesus, he may have even been a Christian himself. His quote, "if it were lawful to call him a man" 
A scholars basis for not believing (in Jesus) is only speculation. Remember that they also have little to go by when concerning information outside of the Bible. 
Oxyrinhus Papyrus
Found in dry climate, this is how it survived. Contains sayings attributed to Jesus and some are even found in the Bible.
Na Hammadi Library
Found many texts, specifically the Gospel of Thomas - series of sayings, earliest extrabiblical gospels. (came after the canon)
source of information, gives statements of history of Jesus. 
Definition of, "Synoptics"
literally meaning with one view
books of the synoptics
matthew, mark, and luke.
Source Criticism
Asking, "what are the sources behind our gospels" 
4 different theories of Source Criticism
Total Independance theory, proto-gospel theory, common dependance theory, interdependence 
Total Independence Theory
An event happened, it was interpreted in different ways by each different author. 
Problems with the Total Independence Theory
Can't explain similar wording.
Proto-Gospel Theory
Meaning an event happened the proto-gospel was mad and authors interpreted from this proto-gospel. 
What are the problems with the Proto-Gospel Theory
Who wrote this Proto Gospel, wheres the evidence, Why don't we just use the proto-gospel?
Improvments of the Proto-Gospel Theory
can explain the similarities. 
Common Dependence Theory
meaning an event happened it was both oral and written, authors take from both of these 
Problems with C.D. Theory. And improvements with it.
can't explain similarities. fits better with what Luke says
Interdependence Theory
The gospels all have relationship to relationship to one another. Matthew to Mark, and Luke used both.
Interdenpend Theory #2 (2 Gospels Theory)
Matthew to Luke to Mark (Mark being a summary gospel)
Interdependence Theory #3 (2 Source Theory)
Mark and Q are the original sources. Matthew use Mark and Q, Luke use Mark and Q. Shows a not so strong relationship between the 2. (especially Luke and Matthew)
Form Criticism
Studying various forms of the gospels. looking for the development of stories and history of stories, how we got these chunks of information
Two different types of form criticism
Dissimilarity and Redaction
a form crticism of learning what was historical. can't be anything like the Church, can't be like Israel. 
Jesus Seminar
determines what Jesus really says by using dissimilarity form criticism
Redaction Criticism
How have gospel writers edited material and what can you get from their theological editions?
Theological Editor
Every historical writer is a ________ _______.
Historical editor
Problems with Redactor Theory 
it depends even assumes mark and Q theory of source criticism.
Kingdom to original audience
Thought it was an earthly kingdom in which they would kick out the Messiah and Jesus would reign on earth
Background of the kingdom
God gathered his people, declared them his kingdom, they were not perfect, went through period of the judges, (chaos) God is rejects as their king, Davidic covenant, that God would build a dynasty, hearers would think kingship not diety of king
4 different kingdoms (and their stones)
Babylon - gold, the most precious metal. Medo-Persian - silver. Greek Empire - bronze, "covering the whole earth", Roman - iron and metal, the most practical. mixed = brittle, strong appearance but easy to break. 
3 things to look for in the Parables
The Interpertation, The Goal (to find the main point), and the surprise. 
The interpretation of the parables
interpret them as stories that illustrate a pint. we can't draw unnessescary things out of the parables
The goal of parables
to find the main point and what the illustration is. the details are only to draw listeners in. 
The surprise of the parables
something that would have caught the or. hearers attention. The catch is usually at the end and goes from a know to unknown field.
Matthew 12:22-29
Jesus casts out demons and leaders suggest he is satan (beelzbub). This will not work because a house cannot be divided against itself. So the kingdom has come for he is performing miracles in the name of God. He is defining the kingdom and calling himself, the king
Matthew 12:26 Parable of the Strong man and the robber
Strong man is satan and the robber is God. he is bound so that he may be robbed of his followers and demons. Satan will be limited when the kingdom comes.
Parable of the Sower
Seed - the message of the kingdom. 
four different soils in the parable of the sower
pathway that birds get to - those who hear and Satan snatches them. rocky soils - springs up and dies, those who hear and leave because of persecution. thorns - choke out the good stuff cares for the world/deceit of riches. Good ground - produces fruit. 
Purpose of Parable of the Sower
variety of responses to the message. 
Parable of the mustard seed
from smallest to biggest. i
Illustratino of the parable of the mustard seed.
idea of growth. The kingdom will grow and develop. Encouragement to disciples and apostles
Parable of the Yeast
worked in through the dough. without it the bread won't rise.
Illustration of the parable of the yeast
prevasivness and it spreads. The kingdom was localized (israel) it is now globalized.
Parable of the weeds (wheat and tares)
sower of good seed - son of man. who is the good seed - those who respond to the message, what is the field - the world. the enemy - devil. The weeds - son of satan. the harvest - end of the age (judgment day)